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Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 106 



q. / M, General Hydrographic Investigations, 12 
aenes \ 0, Underground Waters, 26 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

CHARLES D. WALCOTT, Director 



WATER RESOURCES 



PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT 



BY 



FLORENCE BASCOM 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1904 



PUBLICATIONS OF UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The publications of the United States Geological Survey consist of (1) Annual Reports; (: 
Monographs; (3) Professional Papers; (4) Bulletins; (5) Mineral Resources; (6) Water-Supp; 
and Irrigation Papers; (7) Topographic Atlas of United States, folios and separate sheets theree 
(8) Geologic Atlas of United States, folios thereof. The classes numbered 2, 7, and 8 are sold i 
cost of publication; the others are distributed free. A circular giving complete lists may b 
had on application. 

The Professional Papers, Bulletins, and Water-Supply Papers treat of a variety of subjects 
and the total number issued is large. They have therefore been classified into the folio win 
series: A, Economic geology; B, Descriptive geology; C, Systematic geology and paleontolog' 
D, Petrography and mineralogy; E, Chemistry and physics; F, Geography; G, Miscellaneou 
H, Forestry; I, Irrigation; J, Water storage; K, Pumping water; L, Quality of water; I 
General hydrographic investigations; N, Water power; O, Underground waters; P, Hydr. 
graphic progress reports. 

The following Water-Supply Papers are out of stock, and can no longer be supplied: N 
1-16, 19, 20, 22, 29-34, 86, 39, 40, 43, 46, 57-65, 75. Complete lists of papers relating to water supi,. 
and allied subjects follow. (PP=Professional Paper; B=Bulletin; WS= Water-Supply Pape/- 

Series I— Irrigation. 

WS 2. Irrigation near Phoenix, Ariz., by A. P. Davis. 1897. 98 pp., 31 pis. and maps. 

WS 5. Irrigation pi'actice on the Great Plains, by E. B. Cowgill. 1897. 39 pp., 11 pis. 

WS 9. Irrigation near Greeley, Colo., by David Boyd. 1897. 90 pp., 21 pis. 

WS 10. Irrigation in Mesilla Valley, New Mexico, by F. C. Barker. 1898. 51 pp., 11 pis. 

WS 13. Irrigation systems in Texas, by W. F. Hutson. 1898. 68 pp., 10 pis. 

WS 17. Irrigation near Bakersfield, Cal., by C. E. Grunsky. 1898. 96 pp., 16 pis. 

WS 18. Irrigation near Fresno, Cal., by C. E. Grunsky. 1898. 94 pp., 14 pis. 

WS 19. Irrigation near Merced, Cal., by C. E. Grunsky. 1899. 59 pp., 11 pis. 

WS 23. Water-right problems of Bighorn Mountains, by Elwood Mead. 1899. 62 pp., 7 pis. 

WS 32. Water resources of Porto Rico, by H. M. Wilson. 1899. 48 pp., 17 pis. and maps. 

WS 43. Conveyance of water in irrigation canals, flumes, and pipes, by Samuel Fortier. 1901 
86 pp., 15 pis. 

WS 70. Geology and water resources of the Patrick and Goshen Hole quadrangles, Wyoming, 
byG. I. Adams. 1902. 50 pp., 11 pis. 

WS 71. Irrigation systems of Texas, by T. U. Taylor. 1902. 137 pp., 9 pis. 

WS 74. Water resources of the State of Colorado, by A. L. Fellows. 1903. 151 pp., 14 pis. 

WS 87. Irrigation in India (second edition), by H. M. Wilson. 1903. 238 pp., 27 pis. 

WS 93. Proceedings of first conference of engineers of the reclamation service, with accom- 
panying papers, compiled by F. H. Newell, chief engineer. 1904. 361 pp. ; 

The following papers also relate especially to irrigation: Irrigation in India, by H. M. Wilson, 
in Twelfth Annual, Pt. II; two papers on irrigation engineering, by H. M. Wilson, in Thirteenth 
Annual, Pt. III. 

Series J— Water Storage. j 

WS 33. Storage of water on Gila River, Arizona, by J. B. Lippincott. 1900. 98 pp., 33 pis. 

WS 40. The Austin dam, by T. U. Taylor. 1900. 51 pp., 16 pis. 

WS 45. Water storage on Cache Creek, California, by A. E. Chandler. 1901. 48 pp., 10 pis. 

WS 46. Physical characteristics of Kern River, California, by F. H. Olmsted, and Reconnais- 
sance of Yuba River, California, by Marsden Manson. 1901. 57 pp., 8 pis. 

WS 58. Storage of water on Kings River, California, by J. B. Lippincott. 1902. 100 pp., 32 pis. 

WS 68. Water storage in Truckee Basin, California-Nevada, by L. H. Taylor. 1902. 90 pp., 
8 pis. 

WS 73. Water storage on Salt River, Arizona, by A. P. Davis. 1902. 54 pp., 25 pis. 

WS 86. Storage reservoirs on Stony Creek, California, by Burt Cole. 1903. 62 pp., 16 pis. 

WS 89. Water resources of Salinas Valley California, by Homer Hamlin. 1903. 91 pp., 12 pis. 

WS 93. Proceedings of first conference of engineers of the reclamation service, with accom- 
panying papers, compiled by F. H. Newell, chief engineer. 1904. 361 pp. 

The following paper also should be noted under this heading: Reservoirs for irrigation, by 
J. D. Schuyler, in Eighteenth Annual, Pt IV. 

[Continued on third page of cover.] W 

IRR 106—2 



Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 106 



Q • / M, General Hydrographic Investigations, 12 
benes \ 0, Underground Waters, 26 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

CHARLES D. WALCOTT, Director 



WATER RESOURCES 



PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT 



BY 



FLORENCE BASCOM 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

19 04 



CONTENTS 



Letter of transmittal 7 

Introduction 9 

Acknowledgments 9 

Geology _* 11 

Physiography 11 

Piedmont Plateau 11 

Coastal Plain ■- „ 13 

Stratigraphy 13 

Ancient crystalline rocks . 13 

Algonkian 13 

Baltimore gneiss 13 

Cambrian 13 

Chickies quartzite 1 13 

Cambro-Ordovician 13 

Chester Valley limestone 13 

Ordovician 14 

Wissahickon mica-gneiss and mica-schist : 14 

Topographic features of crystalline area . 14 

Sedimentary rocks 14 

Triassic 14 

Norristown shale - 14 

Gwynedd shale . _ 15 

Lansdale shale i . 1 15 

Perkasie shale 15 

Pottstown shale 15 

Rainfall 15 

Streams 21 

Piedmont hydrographic basin 21 

Delaware River 21 

Southwest tributaries to Delaware River 23 

Northeast tributaries to Delaware River 27 

Schuylkill River 32 

Schuylkill tributaries 35 

Coastal Plain hydrographic basin 42 

Drainage 42 

Water power 46 

Ponds . 48 

Springs 48 

Deep and artesian wells 49 

Piedmont district 49 

Ancient crystalline belt 49 

Triassic belt 53 

Coastal Plain district 54 

Geologic conditions 54 

Water horizons : 54 

3 



CONTENTS. 



Public water supplies 63 

Philadelphia and soil rarbs . _ 63 

Philadelphia 1 mreau of water 63 

Springfield water companies 65 

Springfield Water Company 65 

North Springfield Water Company . _ . 66 

Independent companies 67 

Chester 67 

Media 67 

Norristown 67 

Lansdale 67 

Ambler 68 

Camden 68 

Hiverton and Palmyra 68 

Haddonfield 68 

Newbold and Westville 68 

Paulsboro 68 

Other towns 69 

Index 71 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page. 

Plate I. Sketch map of Philadelphia district 9 

II. Diagram of stream flow of Ridley Creek, 1892-1901 24 

III. Diagram showing storage and run-off of Perkiomen and Nesham- 

iny creeks _ _ _• 28 

IV. Sections showing water horizons along western border of Coastal 

Plain in New Jersey 54 

Fig. 1 . Index map showing location of Philadelphia district and limits of 

Delaware and Schuylkill drainage basins 10 

2. Sketch map showing physiographic divisions 11 

3. Diagram showing rainfall at Philadelphia, 1825-1900 16 

5 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Department of the Interior, 
United States Geological Survey, 

Hydrographic Branch, 
Washington, D. C. , March °2, 190 Jf. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript for a 
paper entitled "Water Resources of the Philadelphia District," pre- 
pared by Dr. F. Bascom at the request of Mr. M. L. Fuller, chief of 
the eastern section of the division of hydrology. The work was con- 
ducted in connection with investigations for the geologic branch of 
the Survey, through the courtesy of which the report has been prepared. 
The paper presents a summary of the knowledge of the water 
resources of Philadelphia and vicinity, including both surface and 
underground waters. In the discussion of the former a considerable 
number of data which have appeared in scattered and inaccessible 
publications are brought together and presented with the new mate- 
rial. The facts relating to underground waters are largely new and 
are the result of a personal canvass of the region. 
Very respectfully, 

F. H. Newell, 
Chief Engineer. 
Hon. Charles D. Walcott, 

Director United States Geological Survey. 



\ 



D 



WATER RESOURCES OF THE PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 

By Florence Bascom. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The area included in the Philadelphia district lies between 39° 45' 
and 40° 15' north latitude and 75° and 75° 30' west longitude. It has 
a length of 34.50 miles from north to south and a width of 26.53 miles 
from east to west, and covers one-fourth of a square degree, which is 
equivalent, in that latitude, to about 915.25 square miles. It is 
mapped on the Germantown, Norristown, Philadelphia, and Chester 
atlas sheets of the United States Geological Survey. a Each of these 
sheets represents a tract fifteen minutes in extent each way. This 
district is in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, and comprises, 
in whole or in part, ten counties — Bucks, Montgomery, Philadelphia, 
Delaware, and Chester counties in Pennsylvania; Burlington, Cam- 
den, Gloucester, and Salem counties in New Jersey; and Newcastle 
County in Delaware. A population of nearly 2,000,000 is embraced 
within these limits. The location and general relations of the district 
are shown in fig. 1, on the next page. 

In this paper will be discussed the topography, rainfall, run-off, 
and stream discharges of the chief hydrographic basins, the geology 
and water-bearing horizons, and the water power and water supply 
in relation to its present and future utilization. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

Data for the report on the present utilization of the water supply 
have been obtained chiefly from Mr. J. W. Ledoux, chief engineer of 
the American Pipe Manufacturing Company, and from Mr. John E. 
Codman, chief draftsman of the Philadelphia bureau of water. 
These gentlemen have courteously furnished me all the desired data 
in their possession, both published and unpublished. It is a pleasure 
to acknowledge my obligations to them and to Mr. John W. Hill, 
chief engineer of the Philadelphia bureau of filtration. 

Stream measurements, rainfall data, and stream discharges have 
been taken from records made and published b}~ Mr. Codman. 

a These four sheets have been combined and published as a map of Philadelphia and vicinity. 

9 



U. S. GEOLOGICAL 




10 



WATER RESOURCES OE PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 



A number of tables, plates, and records have been extracted from 
the reports of the Philadelphia bureaus of filtration and of water. 




Fig. 1.— Index map showing location of Philadelphia district and limits of Delaware and 
Schuylkill drainage basins. 

Much material has also been obtained from the reports of the geo- 
logical survey of New Jersey, especially volume 3; from Bulletin 



BASCOM.] 



PHYSIOGRAPHY. 



11 



No. 138 of the United States Geological Survey, by 1ST. H. Darton; from 
papers by Prof. Oscar C. S. Carter, and from a Report on the New 
Red, by Mr. Benjamin Smith Lyman. 

I wish also to acknowledge the courtesy of water-supply companies 
not represented in the above list, and of artesian well owners, who 
have promptly furnished the information desired of them. 

GEOLOGY. 



PHYSIOGRAPHY. 



is divisible into three very unlike 
Appalachian district, the Piedmont 



The Atlantic border regioi 
physiographic provinces — the 
Plateau, and the Coastal 
Plain. The Piedmont Plat- 
eau constitutes about three- 
fourths of the Philadelphia 
district and the Coastal Plain 
the remaining fourth. The 
Delaware River marks the 
boundary between the two 
provinces, which are distinct 
h} T drographically. 

Each of these provinces has 
a history, which is, in a broad 
way, the same for the entire 
province. This accounts for 
the uniformity of physio- 
graphic features in a single 
province. 

Piedmont Plateau. — This 
plateau lies on the southeast- 
ern foot of the Appalachian 
system — whence its name 
Piedmont — and is separated 
from the Atlantic Ocean by a 
belt of coastal plain 10 to 100 
miles in width. Its western 
limit is denned by the High- 
lands of New Jersey in New 
Jersey, by the South Mountain 
in Pennsylvania, and by the 
Blue Ridge in Virginia. 

The Piedmont Plateau has 
an average width of 50 miles and extends north and south from Maine 
to Alabama. A conspicuous change in topography marks its eastern 
boundary, where it passes into the Coastal Plain. Along this border 




Fig. 2.— Sketch map showing physiographic divi- 
sions. 



12 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

line are situated the large cities of the Atlantic States — New York, 
Trenton, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Peters- 
burg, Raleigh, Augusta, and Macon. Eastward the streams open 
into tidal estuaries and afford good shipping facilities, while westward 
they cease to be navigable and flow in tumultuous courses. 

The plateau is an upland of moderate elevation with shallow val- 
leys and with some eminences rising above its general level. The 
hills reach a height of 1,600 feet, while the upland varies from 200 to 
600 feet above sea level. If the valleys were filled in, the upland would 
be converted into a flat elevated plain ; hence the term plateau has 
been applied to it. This plateau slopes eastward and southeastward 
toward the sea. Neither the heterogeneous constitution nor the com- 
plex structure of the underlying rocks is revealed in the level lines 
of the plateau. The larger streams which cut into it and converted 
it into a diversified upland flowed in courses which were independent 
of the structure and of the character of the rock floor. This diversified 
upland or dissected plateau is further characterized by the absence 
of bare rock ledges and by the presence of a thick mantle of fertile 
soil comparatively free from stones. 

The streams of the Piedmont Plateau are of two classes — (1) those 
which rise west of the plateau and (2) those which rise within it. 
Streams rising west of the plateau usually empty into estuaries which 
head at its junction with the Coastal Plain; of this class are the 
Delaware and Schuylkill of the Philadelphia district, and the Susque- 
hanna, Potomac, and James to the south. Streams which rise within 
the plateau either are wholly within it, emptying into estuaries or 
larger streams, as Cobbs, Darby, Ridley, and Chester creeks, or cross 
both the plateau and the Coastal Plain, flowing directly into the 
ocean, as the Roanoke and Savannah rivers. 

The highest land of the Philadelphia Piedmont district is in the 
vicinity of Valley Forge, in the Schuylkill watershed, where the 
quartzite hills have an altitude of 640 feet. 

North of these hills and of a line extending N. 70° E. the under- 
lying rocks are shales with interbedded sandstone. These formations 
have a fairly uniform and very gentle dip 8° to 15° N. or NW. They 
diminish to a thin edge to the southeast and reach a thickness of 
15,000 feet to the northwest. They cover about one- third of the 
Piedmont district, giving rise to low relief and furnishing a fine, red, 
somewhat calcareous clay soil which is fairly fertile. The remaining 
two-thirds of the district is underlain by a series of quartzites, lime- 
stones, schists, gneisses, granites, gabbro, and serpentine. This series 
has been subjected to a pressure which has produced a conspicuous 
schistosity dipping steeply southeast, and a more gentle but often 
steep inclination of the bedding planes southeast or northwest. These 
formations occur in belts trending northeast and southwest, roughly 
parallel to the Delaware River. Through differential erosion they 



bascom.] STRATTGKAPHY. 13 

give rise to a more diversified topography than the comparatively 
uniform shale formations. Tliey furnish a deep, rich, clayey soil. 

Coastal Plain. — The Coastal Plain lies between the sea and the 
Piedmont Plateau and extends from Staten Island southward to 
Florida, varying in width from 10 to 150 miles. It slopes gently sea- 
ward and rises westward to a height of a few hundred feet. It is a 
low, flat area composed of beds of unconsolidated gravel, sand, clay, 
and marls, which have an inclination corresponding, in the main, 
with the general seaward slope of the plain. The drainage is largely 
simple, the streams being consequent upon the uplift of the plain 
from the sea. Streams rise also in the Piedmont Plateau or in the 
Appalachian district and cross the Coastal Plain. In the part of the 
Coastal Plain included in the Philadelphia district all the streams are 
simple. 

STRATIGRAPHY. 

The rock floor of the Philadelphia district is composed of a" complex 
of ancient metamorphosed sedimentary formations and crystalline 
igneous intrusives. 

This floor is overlain in the southeastern third of the district by 
unconsolidated materials — gravels, sands, clays, and marls of Creta- 
ceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary age. These materials are chiefly 
confined to the Coastal Plain and are discussed under the heading, 
k ' Coastal Plain." 

ANCIENT CRYSTALLINE ROCKS. 

The ancient crystalline rock floor, which is overlain in the Coastal 
Plain to the southeast by Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary 
gravels, sands, clays, and marls and on the northeast by the Triassic 
shales and sandstones, is uncovered in the larger half of the Piedmont 
Plateau which constitutes the central portion of the Philadelphia 
district. 

The formations of this complex are of pre-Paleozoic and Paleozoic 
age, and their sequence and character are, briefly, as follows : 

ALGONKIAN. 

Baltimore gneiss (Fordham gneiss of New York folio) {pre- Geor- 
gian). — This formation is a hard, light-colored, feldspathic, banded 
rock, which marks the crest of Buck Ridge. Into it have been intruded 
granitic and gabbroitic igneous masses. 

CAMBRIAN. 

Cluckies quartzite {Georgian). — This is a crystalline, sericitic, 
itacolumitic quartzite, which outcrops in the north Chester Valley, 
Cold Point, and Whitemarsh hills, Camp Hill, and Edge Hill. 

CAMBRO-ORDOVICIAN. 

Chester Valley limestone.— The Chester Valley limestone is a crys- 
talline, magnesian, siliceous, blue or white limestone, chiefly confined 
to Chester Valley. 



14 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no, 106. 

ORDOVICIAN. 

Wissahickon mica-gneiss and mica-schist (Hudson). — This is a 
crystalline bedded formation which, like all this series, outcrops in 
a belt trending northeast and southwest. The mica-gneiss extends 
from the Delaware River to Chestnut Hill. Toward the north this 
formation becomes a mica-schist, which forms the south Chester 
Valley hills and immediately overlies the Chester Valley limestone. 

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF CRYSTALLINE AREA. 

The more basic peripheries of the gabbro masses have been altered 
to serpentine and steatite and have given rise to low sterile ridges. 
A rolling lowland characterizes the easily eroded mica-gneiss, while 
the quartzitic mica-schist forms ridges. 

A fertile, open valley characterizes the limestone, while the resist- 
ing quartzite forms the highest and most abrupt hills of the Piedmont 
belt. 

The Baltimore gneiss and the gabbro which completely and irregu- 
larly penetrates it constitute the broad, flat-topped ridge (Buck Ridge) 
which extends across the district in a northeast-southwest direction 
and separates the Wissahickon gneiss belt from the other sedimen- 
taries. These formations are folded in synclines and anticlines over- 
turned to the northwest. This structure gives them a prevailing dip 
to the southeast. The dip is sometimes coincident with, but often less 
steep than, a marked cleavage to the southeast. Huntington and 
Cream valleys — the narrow lowland on the northwest base of Buck 
Ridge — probably mark a fault heading northwest. This fault has 
caused the disappearance along this line sometimes of the limestone, 
sometimes of the quartzite, and sometimes of both formations. 

The pressure from the southeast, which has caused the overturned 
folds, the cleavage, and the faulting, has affected igneous and sedi- 
mentary materials alike, completely metamorphosing the entire series 
and producing like secondary structures in all. 

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. 
TRIASSIC. 

In the northern third of the district the ancient crystalline floor is 
overlain by gently dipping shales with interbedded sandstones. 

These formations are intermediate in age between the eroded floor, 
upon which they were laid down, and the Coastal Plain formations 
on the southeast. They belong to the Triassic period and are repre- 
sented, within the Philadelphia district, by five divisions. a 

Norristown shale. — The lowest division, the Norristown shale, 
immediately overlies the crystallines and is exposed in a belt, about 4 
miles in width, extending northeast and southwest from Valley Forge 

« Lyman, B. S., Report on the New Reel of Bucks and Montgomery counties: Second Geol. 
Survey Pennsylvania, Final report, vol. 3, pt. 2, pp. 2589-2638. 



■BASCOM.] 



STRATIGRAPHY AND RAINFALL. 15 



and Norristown to the Delaware River. Within this division are 
included about 6,100 feet of red, partly calcareous shales, with some 
important though comparatively thin beds of brown sandstone near 
the top and several thicker and coarser beds of hard, gray, pebbly 
sandstone at the base. 

In the Philadelphia district the Norristown shale dips gently to the 
northwest. This is also true of the overlying formations ; hence they 
outcrop at the surfaces successively to the northwest in belts which 
are, in general, parallel to the Norristown shale belt. 

Givynedd shale. — This is the next overlying formation and includes 
approximately 3,500 feet of usually dark-red, sometimes dark-green 
or dark-gray, and partly black shales with traces of coal. 

These shales are comparatively hard and form the ridge north of 
Norristown which trends northeast. The Gwynedd shale is exposed 
in a belt about 3 miles wide. 

Lansdale shale. — Overlying the Gwynedd shale is the Lansdale 
formation, which embraces 4,700 feet of red calcareous shales, with a 
few scattered green layers and a few thin red sandstone beds. This 
formation is soft, and forms the lowland belt, 4 miles wide, northwest 
of the Gwynedd ridge. 

Perkasie shale. — These shales cross the northwest corner of the 
district in a belt about 1 mile wide. They have a thickness of 
approximately 2,000 feet, and are hard, green, red, or gray shales, with 
some carbonaceous layers. Because of their hardness these shales 
mark high land. 

Pottstown shale. — A triangular area in the extreme northwest corner 
is covered by the Pottstown. shale. This formation consists chiefly 
of soft, red, calcareous shales, with a few thin limestone beds, and 
has a total thickness of 10,700 feet. Flat, low-lying land character- 
izes the Pottstown shale area/' 

RAINFALL. 

Records of the rainfall in Philadelphia have been kept by the 
United States Weather Bureau since 1872. The table on pages 17-21 
is based on the figures of that Bureau. 

The total rainfall has been calculated for each period of the water 
year from 1872 to 1904. These figures, as is to be expected, show that 
the average monthly precipitation on the Middle Atlantic coast is 
nearly uniform throughout the year. It is somewhat greater during 
the growing period 6 than in an}^ other period of the year. The aver- 

iMr. N. H. Darton, who has made a recent (1904) survey of the Triassic series of this district, 
groups the members of the series in three divisions— the Stockton formation, which corresponds 
approximately to the Norristown shale; the Locatong formation, which contains the Gwynedd 
shale; and the Brunswick shale, which embraces the Lansdale, Perkasie, and Pottstown shales. 

''As regards rainfall and run-off records, Rafter has divided the year into three periods— those 
of storage, growing, and replenishing— with a water year beginning December 1. The storage 
period extends from December 1 to May 31, although at times it may begin November 1 and end 
with April. The growing period extends from June to August, inclusive, and the replenishing 
period from September to November, inclusive. See Water-Sup. and Irr. Paper No. 80, U. S. 
Geol. Survey, 1903, pp. 16-17. 



16 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 



[no. 106. 



ANNUAL RAINFALL IN INCHES 



age monthly precipitation during the storage and replenishing periods 
is very nearly the same. 

It will be shown that the run-off of the streams is absolutely and 
proportionally greater in the storage 
period than in the replenishing period, 
and least of all in the growing period, 
when the rainfall is greatest. 

The minimum aunual rainfall in the 
thirty-two years covered by the record 
was 30.21 inches, in 1881, which is 0.08 
inches less than the normal. The maxi- 
mum annual rainfall occurred in 1873; 
it was 55.28 inches, or 15.00 inches 
above the normal. The mean annual 
rainfall in the thirty-two years since 
1872, or the normal for Philadelphia, is 
10.57 inches. This is not a high aver- 
age precipitation for a temperate region. 
For sixteen years out of the thirty- 
two the annual rainfall was less than 40 
inches. 

The rainfall at the principal eastern 
cities in 1002, as given in the United 
States Weather Bureau Report, was as 
follows : 

Rainfall in principal eastern cities in 19a.'. 

Inches. 

Portland, Me 45. 18 

Boston 44. 96 

New Haven 47. 91 

New York 1 . 44. 80 

Philadelphia 39. 84 

Baltimore 43. 95 

Washington 43. 46 

To what degree this relatively low 
figure for the normal precipitation in 
Philadelphia represents the actual facts, 
and to what degree the recorded differ- 
ence in precipitation at Philadelphia 
and Baltimore may be due to unavoid- 
able inaccuracies consequent upon the 
location and exposure of rain gages as 
suggested by the similarity in the topo- 
graphic conditions at those two cities, is a matter for future investi- 





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bascom.J RAINFALL. 

Rainfall, in inches, at Philadelphia, lS72-1903.a 



17 



Months grouped in periods, and year. 



1871- 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November _ . 
1872 



1872-73. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1873 



1873-74. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1874 



1874- 75. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1875 



1875-^ 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1876 . 



1876-77. 

December-May 

June-August. . _ 

September-November 

1877 



1877-78. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1878 



Precipita- 
tion. 



21.30 
12.29 



24.72 
17.39 
14.53 



23.09 
10.86 
11.20 



15.80 

14.18 

9.35 



23.24 



17. 14 



12.02 
11.41 
14.40 



15.14 

11.84 

5. 19 



Annual pre 
cipitation. 



48.36 



55. 28 



46.25 



40.22 



47.39 



37.26 



Annual 
departure 
from the 

normal. 



8.17 



+15.09 



6.06 



+ .03 



+ 7.20 



2.93 



« Based on tables given in reports of Weather Bureau, 1896-1903, with 
irr 106—04 2 



34.53 - 5.66 
additional data for 1903. 



18 WATER RESOURCES OE PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

Rainfall, in inches, at Philadelphia, 1872-1903 — Continued. 



Months grouped in periods, ;md year. 



1 8 78-79. 

December-May 

June-August : _ . 

September-November _ . 

1879 



1879-80. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1880 



1880-81, 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1881 



1881-82. 

December-May 

June- August : . . 

September-November 

1882 ' 



1882-83. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1883 



1883-84. 



December-May . 



September -November 
1884 



1884-85. 



December-May 

June-August 

September-November 
1885 



1885-86. 



December-May 
June- August- .. 



Precipita- 
tion . 



14.82 

17.52 

2.91 



15.13 

14.50 

4.59 



19.62 
6.01 
6.00 



22.17 

9.67 

14.40 



17.51 
11.09 



23.64 

11.13 

4.05 



16.16 
9.93 

7. 85 



21 . 55 
8.47 



Annual pre 
cipitation. 



36.75 



33.58 



30.21 



45.58 



39.1' 



39.34 



33.35 



Annual 
departure 
from the 

normal. 



3.44 



6.61 



+ 5.39 



1.02 



.85 



6.66 



bascom.] RAINFALL. 

Rainfall, in inches, at Philadelphia, 1872-1903— Continued. 



19 



Months grouped in periods, and year, 



1885-86. 

September-November 

1886 



1886-87. 



December-May. 



September-November 
1887 



1887-88. 

December-May . 

June-August . 

September-November 

1888 



1888-89. 

December-May 

June- August _ 

September-November 

1889 : 



1889-90. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1890 



1890-91. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1891 J 



1891-92. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1892 



1892-93. 

December-May 

June-August . 

September-November 

1893 _.._: 



Precipita- 
tion. 



Annual pre 
cipitation. 



7.00 



15.96 
16.26 

7.98 



22.91 
10.33 

12.73 



18.97 
18.75 
15.18 



15.92 
8.69 
7.93 



19.19 

11.38 

6.17 



20.71 
7.69 
8.07 



19.48 
7.54 
9.59 



37.24 



42.17 



44.06 



50.60 



34.02 



38.19 



34.78 



37.65 



Annual 

departure 

from the 

normal. 



2.95 



+ 1.98 



+ 3.86 



+10.41 



- 6.17 



2.37 



- 5.89 



2.91 



20 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 

Rainfall, in inches, at Philadelphia, 1872-1903 — Continued. 



[no. 106. 



Months grouped in periods, and year. 



1893-94. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1894 



1894-95. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1895 



1895-96. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1896 



1896-97. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

189? 



1897- 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November . . . 
1898 



1898-99. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1899 



1899-1900. 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 

1900 



1900-1901. 



December-May 
June-August.. 



Precipita- 
tion. 



Annual pre 
cipitation. 



21.88 

4.53 

13.03 



20.41 
6.97 
5.90 



17.77 
7.80 
7.34 



15. 53 
15.75 

7.24 



22. 24 
14.44 
13.86 



23.23 
10.96 

7.57 



17.64 

9.54 

12.73 



17.95 
15.45 



40.34 



31.01 



32. 15 



42.04 



49.23 



39.96 



40.91 



Annual 
departure 
from the 

normal. 



.22 



9.55 



6.42 



2.59 



+ 9.03 



44 



+ .49 



bascom.] RAINFALL. 

Rainfall, in inches, at Pliiladetyhia, 1872-1908 — Continued. 



21 



Months grouped in periods, and year. 



1900-1901. 

September-November 

1901 



1901-2. 



December-May 

June- August 

September-November 
1902 



1902-3. 



December-May 

June- August 

September-November 
1903 



Mean precipitation for 32 years: 

December-May 

June-August 

September-November 



Precipita- 
tion. 



7.83 



24.25 
11.93 

13.67 



22.75 

14.79 

7.20 



19.40 

11.78 

9.55 



Annual pre- 
cipitation. 



45. 54 



49. 7G 



41.50 



40.57 



Annual 
departure 
from the 

normal. 



+ 5.56 



9.92 



1.44 



STREAMS. 

PIEDMONT HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN. 

The Piedmont Plateau (see fig. 2, p. 11) is crossed by the Schuylkill 
River and limited on the southeast by the Delaware River. The other 
watercourses are tributary to one or the other of these two streams. 
The valley of the Delaware is not more than 20 feet above sea level, 
Avhile the divide between the Delaware and the Schuylkill rises to a 
height of 520 feet. 

DELAWARE RIVER. 



The Delaware River has a total length of 410 miles (fig. 2), but only 
35 miles are included in the Philadelphia district (PI. I). It is navi- 
gable by ocean steamers to Philadelphia, 100 miles from its mouth, and 
there is a low- water depth of 5 feet to Trenton, 30 miles northeast of 
Philadelphia. It is tidal to this point, 130 miles above the capes. 
Above Trenton it has an average fall of about 6.7 feet per mile. Its 
drainage area, including all its branches, is 12,012 square miles. 
The population and the classification of land on the different portions 



22 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT 



[NO. 10G 



of the Delaware watershed, as computed by the New Jersey survey," 
are as follows: 



Population and classification of lands in Delaware ivatershed. 





Population 

per square 

mile. 


Improved 
lands. 


Barrens. 


Forest. 


Above Water Gap . - 


31 

43 

98 

415 


Per cent. 
34 
39 
43 

48 


Per cent. 

7 
G 
6 
5 


Per cent. 
59 


Above Easton _ . 


55 


Above Trenton .__.___ 

Lehigh River 


51 

47 







The Delaware is subject to considerable seasonal fluctuation in 
volume. Its stages have been summarized by Mansfield Merriman, as 
follows : h " January, frozen and medium height ; February and March, 
breaking up and high; April, May, and June, high; July, subsiding; 
August and September, low ; October, low but subject to high freshets ; 
November, low, often very low ; December, rising a little and freezing. " 
The conditions favorable to floods are common to the district — a 
heavy rainfall on frozen ground or a rainfall in excess of what the 
ground is able to absorb. The estimated flow of the Delaware above 
Trenton is given in the table on the next page, taken from volume 3 
of the report of the New Jersey geological survey. 

As a source of domestic supply and power the Delaware is extremely 
important. It has been utilized for domestic supply to a large degree, 
but the increasing impurity of its water necessitates an elaborate 
system of filtration, such as is now being operated at Torresdale by 
the city of Philadelphia. With adequate filtration the Delaware can 
supply the increasing population near it with abundant water. In 
1894 it supplied in New Jersey 142,636 inhabitants with 17,010,464 gal- 
lons of water daily. The estimated supply for Trenton without stor- 
age was 601,600,000 gallons. Analysis of the water shows that above 
Trenton the Delaware is polluted with sewage and industrial refuse 
to a dangerous degree. 

The water power of the Delaware has been largely left unutilized, 
probably because of the difficult}^ of building dams and the compara- 
tive cheapness of fuel. The number of mills on the Delaware above 
Trenton is only 186, with a net horsepower of 6,658. The New Jersey 
survey estimates that there is 3,576 horsepower available during nine 
months of the year at Trenton unused. 



oGeol. Survey New Jersey, vol. 3. p. 231. 

fcAnn. Rept. Chief of Engineers for 1873, Appendix U, p. 19. 



BASCOM.] 



DEL A WAKE RIVEK AND TRIBUTARIES. 



23 



Estimated flow of Delaware River above Trenton.' 1 
AVERAGE YEAR. 





Dec. Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 
3.67 


Year. 


Inches of rainfall . . 


3. 67 


3.57 


3.40 


3. 67 


3. 57 


3.99 


3. 5)9 


4.17 


4. 52 


3. 67 


3.40 


45.29 


Inches flowing off . 


2.97 


3.01 


2.83 


2.92 


2.48 


1.74 


1.26 


.90 


.87 


1.10 


1.92 


2. 75 


24. 75 


Flow in 1,000 gal- 
lons daily per 
square mile 


1,660 


1,680 


1,695 


1,640 


1,440 


975 


730 


505 


487 


070 


1,070 


1,590 


1,180 


Horsepower on 1 
foot fall per 
scpiar e mile 


0.292 


0.297 


0.298 


0.288 


0. 253 


0. 181 


0. 128 


0.089 


0.086 


0. 112 


0. 189 


0.280 


0.207 



ORDINARY DRY YEAR. 



Inches of rainfall. _ 


3.95 


4. 04 


1.67 


2.95 


2.60 


3. 36 


3. 73 


4.47 


3.93 


0. 99 


2.09 


2.22 


36. 00 


Inches flowing off . 


3. 23 


3.45 


1.25 


2.28 


1.76 


1.37 


1.04 


.87 


.80 


.60 


.52 


.69 


17.86 


Flow in 1,000 gal- 
lons daily p e i" 
square mile 


1,81) 


1,930 


750 


1,280 


1,015 


768 


603 


487 


448 


347 


291 


400 


850 


Horsepower on 1 
foot fall per 
square mile 


0. 318 


0. 340 


0. 131 


0. 225 


0. 179 


0.135 


0. 106 


0.086 


0.079 


0.061 


0.051 


0.070 


0.149 



DRIEST PERIOD. 



Inches of rainfall. . 


4.05 


3.66 


4.76 


3.83 


0.61 


2.71 


3.87 


0.96 


1.18 


0.94 


3.04 


2.02 


31. 63 


Inches flowing off _ 


3.32 


3.09 


4.09 


3.07 


1.03 


.71 


.69 


.43 


.26 


.22 


.23 


.29 


17.43 


Flow in 1,000 gal- 
lons daily per 
square mile 


1,860 


1,730 


2,450 


1,720 


595 


398 


40) 


241 


145 


127 


129 


168 


828 


Horsepower on 1 
foot fall per 
square mile 


0.327 


0. 305 


0.430 


0.303 


0. 105 


0.070 


0.070 


0.042 


0.026 


0.022 


0.023 


0.030 


0.146 



DRIEST PERIOD FOR TWO YEARS. 



Inches of rainfall. 
Inches flowing off 



2.63 


4.57 


4,22 


3.57 


2.12 


5. 06 


1.90 


1.37 


6.40 12.09 


1.32 


0.99 


.40 


1.94 


3. 58 


2.83 


1.54 


2.13 


.90 


.59 


.40 6.90 


1.23 


. 80 



46.24 
23. 2d 



«G-eol. Surv. New Jersey, vol. 3, p. 240. 
SOUTHWEST TRIBUTARIES TO DELAWARE RIVER. 

The divide between the Schuylkill and the Delaware on the south- 
west of the former stream lies entirely within the Paleozoic area and 
is approximately defined by the Philadelphia division of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. The Delaware watershed west of the Schuylkill is 
drained by Cobbs-Darbj^, Crum, Ridley, and Chester creeks. (PI. I.) 
These are simple streams flowing in general southeast, in the direction 
of the original slope of the plateau, transverse to the strike of the under- 
lying rocks and with the prevailing dip. They have roughly parallel 
courses, and drainage basins of like geologic character and of approxi- 



24 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 103. 

mately the same area. With a fall of 480 feet in 16 to 20 miles, they 
have cut rocky channels 200 feet below the level of the plateau. They 
flow through a fertile and cultivated country which still bears con- 
siderable woodland. 

The annual rainfall computed for the three periods of the water year 
is given in the table on pages 25-20. The rainfall is uniform on the 
drainage basins of the four creeks and the flow of the streams does 
not differ materially. For Crum and Ridley creeks detailed observa- 
tions and estimates have been made and have been furnished by Mr. 
Ledoux. The table groups these data in a new form. The data for 
Cobbs-Darby and Chester creeks can not be materially different. 

Crum Creek has a drainage area of 29.47 square miles, of which 
approximately 40 per cent is wooded. Its minimum average monthly 
flow from 1892 to 1901 was 5,220,000 gallons in 24 hours, in September, 
L895, and its maximum flow 138,000,000 gallons in 24 hours, in May, 
L894. 

Ridley Creek has a drainage area of 33.6 square miles. Its mini- 
mum computed flow between 1892 and 1901 was 5,940,000 gallons in 
24 hours, in September, 1895. Its maximum observed flow was 
157,500,000 gallons in 24 hours, in May, 1894. Its minimum flow occurs 
in August, September, and October, at the close of the growing period 
and the opening of the replenishing period. At this time stream flow 
has not begun to show the effects of the season of replenishing, and 
ground water, at the close of a period of maximum vegetable growth 
and maximum evaporation, is at its lowest level. The maximum flow 
occurs in March, April, or May, at the close of the storage period, when 
evaporation and plant absorption are at a minimum and ground and 
artificial storage at a maximum. PI. II shows graphically this peri- 
odic fluctuation of stream flow. The same statements may be made 
for Crum Creek. 

In the table on pages 25-26 are given the discharges for Crum and 
Ridley creeks, calculated for the three periods into which the water 
year has been divided b} 7 Mr. George W. Rafter. This grouping 
clearly shows that the greatest stream flow occurs in the storage period, 
December to May ; the least in the growing period , June to August ; and 
a somewhat variable mean in the replenishing period, September to 
November. 



u. 


s. 


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
























WATER-SUPPLY 


PAPER 


NO. 


106 


Pi 


. II 




1892 


1893 








190 


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U. 8. GEOLOGICAL SUR 

1892 189 


3 


1894 ] 


195 1896 


























ER 








NO. 




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1900 








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T_ =_ :-: : 


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1AM OF STREAM FLOW OF 
(Original drawing fof this plate pri 



LEY CREEK, 1892- 
d by J. W. Ledoux.) 



BASCOM.] 



TRIBUTARIES OF DELAWARE RIVER. 



•\S 



Rainfall, evaporation, and run-off of Delaware watershed west of Schuylkill River 
and flow of Crum and Ridley creel's. 





Southwest watershed of Delaware. 


Crum Creek 
(computed 
flow 29.9 
square 
miles, in 
million gal- 
lons). 


Ridley 
Creek (com- 


Months, grouped in periods. 


Rainfall. 


Evapora- 
tion. 


Run-off, in 
inches. 


puted flow 
88.0 square 

miles, in 
million gal- 
lons). 


181)2-93. 












December- May . 


22.16 


7. 73 


14.43 


243. 05 


276. 52 


June-August 


10.00 


11.79 


2.26 


38.01 


43. 34 


September-November 


10.48 


5.01 


1.92 


32.31 


36. 81 


1893-94. 












December-May 


26.14 


8.95 


16.69 


280. 75 


320. 03 


June- August . . . . 


8.12 
13. 63 


11.21 
5.73 


2. 25 ' 
2.42 


37.87 
40.71 


43.14 


September-November _______ 


46. 39 


1894-95. 












December-May 


21.97 
6.03 


7.33 
10.63 


15.54 

1.83 


261.66 
30.79 


298. 07 


June- August- 


35. 13 


September-November 


5.30 


4.20 


1.01 


17.00 


19.36 


1895-96. 












December-May _ _ . 


20.70 

9.87 


7.11 
11.76 


18.11 
1.74 


136.50 
29.28 


155. 51 


June- August 


33.37 


September-November 


11.04 


5.27 


1.50 


25. 24 


28.76 


1896-97. 












December-May-. 


19.21 
14.92 


7.51 
13. 55 


9.90 

2.72 


166.63 
45.76 


189. 85 


June- August 


52.18 


September-November 


8.96 


4.67 


2.11 


35.50 


40.48 


1897-98. 












December-May . 


25. 30 


8.18 


17.19 


288. 60 


329. 70 


June- August _ _ 


12.71 


12.63 


2.48 


41.72 


47.50 


September-November 


13.39 


5.22 


6.08 


102.32 


116,58 


1898-99. 












December-May 


24.51 


7.51 


18.21 


291.88 


348. 92 


June-August 


8.10 


11.40 


1.44 


31.97 


27.61 


September-November 


7.42 


4.74 


1.26 


21.21 


24.15 


1899-1900. 












December-May 


19.29 


7.43 


6.42 


107.98 


123.11 


June- August. . - - 


10.70 


12.05 


2.19 


36.85 


42. 01 


September-November 


10.07 


5.31 


2.40 


40.36 


46. 03 



V WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

Rainfall, evaporation, and run-off of Delaware watershed, etc.— Continued. 





Southwest watershed of Delaware. 


Crum Creek 
(computed 
flow 29.9 
square 
miles, in 
million gal- 
lons). 


Ridley 


Months, grouped in periods. 


Eainfall. 


Evapora- 
tion. 


Run-off, in 
inches. 


puted flow 
33.6 square 
miles, in 
million gal- 
lons). 


1900-01. 
December-May 


20.45 

15.45 

6.40 

23.82 
14.19 
13.48 


7.32 

13.39 

4.44 

7.45 
13.04 

6.77 


11.30 
2.53 
2.65 

13.18 
3.70 
6.96 


190.37 
42.59 
44.62 

223. 06 

62.31 

117.28 


216 00 


June-August 


48 56 


September-November 

1901-02. 

December-May 

June- August _. _ .. 


50. 86 

253. 34 

71.04 


September-November 


133. 75 


Average: 

December-May 

June-August . . 


22.36 
11.01 
10.02 


7.65 

12. 15 

5.14 


13.10 
2.31 
2.831 


219. 05 
39.72 
47.66 


251.17 
44.39 


September-November _. 


54.32 



In the ten years over which the observations extended there were 
five years (1893, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1899) when the stream flow during 
the replenishing period was less than during the growing period. In 
these years the rainfall was low in the autumn and the evaporation 
was high. For the ten years the average stream flow during the 
replenishing period is greater than the average flow during the grow- 
ing period, although the average rainfall is less. Plant absorption 
and increased evaporation during the growing period explain the dif- 
ference in the volume of flow. In the three periods of the water 
year the average monthly rainfall, which may be computed from the 
preceding table, does not vary greatly. There is a slightly greater 
average monthly rainfall in the storage period (0.06 of an inch) than 
in the growing period, and a greater average monthly rainfall in that 
period than in the replenishing period (0.33). 

From Ridley Creek 1,500,000 gallons are taken by the water depart- 
ment of the borough of Media every twenty-four hours. From Crum 
Creek 2,000,000 gallons are taken by the Springfield Water Company 
and distributed as described on page 65. 



BASCOM.] 



TRIBUTARIES OF DELAWARE RIVER. 



27 



Mean season rainfall in Delaware watershed ivest of Schuylkill River. 
[1 inch per month of rainfall =571.300 gallons per twenty-four hours.] 



1892-93. 

December- May 

June- August 

September-November 

1893-94. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1894-95. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1895-96.. 

December-May 



September-November 

1896-97. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1897-98. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 



3. 695 
3.333 
3.493 



4.356 
2.706 
4.543 



3.661 
2.010 
1.766 



3.450 
3.290 
3.680 



3.201 
4.973 
2.986 



4.216 
4.236 
4.463 



1898-99. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1899-1900. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1900-01. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

1901-02. 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 

Average: 

December-May 

June- August 

September-November 



4.085 
2.700 
2.473 



3.215 
3.566 
3.356 



3.408 
5.150 
2.133 



3.970 
4.730 
4.493 



3.73 
3.67 
3.34 



NORTHEAST TRIBUTARIES TO DELAWARE RIVER. 

Northeast of the Schuylkill River, Germantown and Chestnut Hill 
locate the divide between the Schuylkill and the Delaware. The 
Delaware watershed is drained by Tacony, Pennypack, and Little 
Neshaminy creeks, which rise in the Triassic area and flow across 
the Paleozoic and pre-Paleozic crystallines. Like the streams dis- 
cussed above, they flow transversely to the strike of the rocks, in 
the direction of the dominant dip. Their valleys do not exceed 100 
feet in depth. Neshaminy Creek is outside of the Philadelphia dis- 
trict, but the observations of its rainfall and stream flow made by the 
Philadelphia bureau of water supply since 1882 will be introduced 
in this paper, a as its basin is similar in character to that of the neigh- 



aCodman, John E., Observations on rainfall and stream flow in eastern Pennsylvania: Proc. 
Eng. Club of Philadelphia, vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 175-178. 



28 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

boring and parallel creek, Pennypack, on which no observations have 
been made. 

The Neshaminy rises in the Triassic area and flows across the Pale- 
ozoic and pre-Paleozoic crystalline rocks of the Philadelphia district 
into the Delaware. Its watershed comprises an area of a little more 
than 139.3 square miles and lies mainly east of the Philadelphia dis- 
trict. The Neshaminy has a fall of about 600 feet in the 27 miles 
from source to mouth. This grade has given the stream good corra- 
sive power, aud it has cut a moderately deep valley into the plateau. 
It and the adjacent streams are subject to spring and winter freshets. 
At these periods volume and velocity may be increased a hundred- 
fold. The drainage basins of Neshaminy and Pennypack creeks con- 
stitute a dissected plateau of moderate elevation and contain excellent 
farming land, which is under a high degree of cultivation. Forests 
have been sacrificed to agricultural interests, and are now found only 
on steep hillsides or on the bottom land bordering the creeks. The 
proportions of woodland and cultivated land in the Neshaminy basin 
are as follows: Woodland, about 6 per cent; cultivated land, about 
92 per cent; roads, 2 per cent, and flats, one-half of 1 per cent. 

Under such surface conditions the spring rainfall is not retained by 
ground storage. The run-off is proportionally large ; great quantities 
of surface soil are carried off; the streams become torrential and 
transport a heavy load of fine sediment. The opaque, rich reddish 
yellow color of the water after heavy rains, due to the large amount 
of finely divided material in suspension, is a characteristic feature of 
streams in this area. 

The conditions which diminish the ground storage increase the 
evaporation during the summer months, hence there is marked sea- 
sonal fluctuation in the stream flow. In summer the soil is parched 
and cracked by evaporation; the level of ground water falls lower than 
the surface springs and upper courses of the tributaries; the springs 
dry up and the streams are reduced. 

As in the case of Crum and Ridle}^ creeks, the stream flow is usually 
greatest in January, February, and March, and least in August, Sep- 
tember, and October. 

The average daily flow of the Neshaminy is 157,600,000 gallons, 
or 1,130,000 gallons per square mile. The maximum flow has been 
3,700,000,000 gallons per day, and the minimum flow 2,800,000 gallons 
per clay. It has been asserted that a draft of 1,000,000 gallons per 
day per square mile of watershed could be made upon Pennsylvania 
streams. 

The average rainfall from 1884 to 1897 at 22 stations where observa- 
tions were made by the Philadelphia bureau of water was about 48.5 
inches. Of this average rainfall nearly 50 per cent, or 24.1 inches, 
flowed off in the streams. 

The diagram, PI. Ill, shows the storage and run-off of the Nesham- 
Lng, and in the next table arc given the mean monthly rainfall, mean 



Storage in Million gallons per square mile 



K> N> — - 

m O Ln O U 1 

o o o o o o 




o o O to 4=> Ch co 

Stream flow in inches of rainfall 



NESHAMINY CREEK. 



29 



monthly run-oft", and mean annual evaporation on the Neshaminy 
watershed, as determined from observations made by Mr. Codman, 
chief engineer of the Philadelphia bureau of water. 

These figures very clearly show that in the Neshaminy watershed 
during the storage period, December to May, the stream flow most 
nearly equals rainfall. This is undoubtedly due to rain falling upon 
frozen ground, to a minimum amount of evaporation, and to the 
absence of plant absorption. Under these conditions the rain water 
finds its way immediately to the streams. 

These figures also show that the stream flow is lowest in propor- 
tion to rainfall during the growing period, June to August, when the 
ground is soft and plant absorption and evaporation are at a maxi- 
mum. In this climate these conditions are more or less continued 
into September and October, and only in November does the Nesha- 
miny begin to regain its volume. 

Rainfall and run-off, Neshaminy Creek, Pennsylvania, from 1883 to 1903. a 
[Area of watershed, 139.3 square miles.] 





October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


Year. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- Run- 
fall. ; off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


1883-84.. 

1884-85 

1885-86 

1886-87 

1887-88.. 

1888-89 

1889-90 

1890-91 

1891-92 

1892-93 

1893-94 

1894-95 ... 

1895-96 ... 

1896-97 

1897-98 

1898-99 

1899-1900 

1900-1901 

1901-2. 


Inches. 

3.80 
3.05 
5.56 
2.77 
1.90 
3.76 
5.09 
6.18 
3.66 
.40 
3.30 
5.25 
3.26 
2.64 
2.50 
4.86 
1.75 
2.54 
1.25 
6.40 


Inches. 

0.48 

.06 

.17 

.06 

.36 

1.05 

2.55 

2.16 

.55 

.04 

.59 

1.48 

.08 

.93 

.16 

.22 

.28 

.15 

.33 

4.55 


Inches. 

1.43 
3.69 
4.50 
3.92 
1.63 
3.49 
8.53 
1.06 
1.88 
7.14 
4.41 
3.02 
2.21 
4.13 
5.23 
6.05 
2.19 
2.34 
2.58 
1.66 


Inches. 

0.35 

.33 

1.53 

.55 

.26 

2.34 

6.31 

.78 

.56 

1.79 

2.58 

2.37 

.11 

1.52 

1.17 

3.01 

1.04 

.40 

.64 

.76 


Inches. 
3.06 
5.70 
2.88 
3.30 
6.13 
3.72 
1.88 
2.86 
4.19 
1.69 
2.78 
4.14 
1.85 
.85 
4.84 
3.59 
2.52 
2.47 
7.47 
6.99 


Indies. 
0.85 
4.56 
1.73 
2.34 
2.88 
3.16 
1.88 
1.37 
3.02 
1.15 
2.61 
2.31 
.40 
.76 
3.26 
3.46 
.74 
.75 
4.54 
5.55 


Inches. 
5.58 
3.76 
5.11 
4.63 
4.47 
3.61 
2.88 
6.28 
5.09 
3.13 
1.71 
4.68 
1.31 
2.04 
3.96 
3.90 
3.52 
2.41 
3.24 


Inches. 

6.77 
3.50 
5.21 
4.22 
4.60 
2.92 
1.60 
5.78 
5.14 
2.00 

.79 
3.46 

.59 
1.29 
3.10 
3.41 
2.71 
1.15 
2.35 


Inches. 
6.27 
4.93 
6.18 
5.05 
3.98 
1.90 
4.28 
4.61 
1.07 
5.68 
4.05 
1.12 
7.79 
3.20 
3.55 
6.20 
4.44 
.96 
6.56 


Inches. 
10.45 
5.18 
6.55 
3.94 
5.49 

.90 
3.00 
4.47 

.97 
4.89 
2.68 
1.77 
4.73 
2.53 
3.51 
4.12 
5.12 

.34 
6 56 


1902-3 














Mean ... 


3.49 


.81 


3. 55 


1.41 


3.64 


2.36 


3.75 


3.19 


4.31 


4.06 



a Compiled from reports of Philadelphia bureau of water, 1884-1903, by R. S. Lea, with addi- 
tional data for 1903. 



30 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

Rainfall and run-off, Neshaminy Creek, Pennsylvania, ete. — Continued. 





March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Year. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 

Inches. 

5.24 
1.68 
5.67 
7.27 
2.34 
5.25 
4.51 
3.46 
3.38 
3.20 
2.55 
4.30 
4.70 
5.21 
.91 
1.62 
6.66 
2.52 
5.51 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


1883-84 

1884-85 

1885-86 

1886-87 

1887-88 

1888-89 

1889-90 

1890-91 

1891-92 

1892-93 

1893-94 

1894-95 

1895-96 

1896-97 

1897-98 

1898-99 

1899-1900: 

1900-1901...... 

1901-2 

1902-3 


Incites. 

5.20 
1.04 
3.72 
3.58 
5.15 
3.37 
5.36 
4.91 
4.13 
2.66 
1.61 
3.17 
5.09 
2.21 
3.04 
.6.58 
2.98 
5.08 
4.45 


1 1 tcli ex. 

5. 55 
1.84 
2.30 
3. 25 
4.89 
2.90 
5.09 
4.32 
3.56 
4.66 
2.67 
4.26 
4.37 
1.73 
1.51 
7.41 
3.13 
3.48 
5.30 


Incites. 

2. 42' 
2.26 
2.93 
3.17 
3.88 
4.83 
2.46 
1.90 
2.24 
4.97 
3.04 
5.32 
1.63 
3.36 
3.87 
1.39 
2.47 
5.07 
3.40 


Inches. 

1.64 
2. 21 
3.57 
1.46 
2.79 
2.07 
1.77 
1.48 
1.03 
2.88 
2.00 
3.34 
1.07 
1.53 
1.69 
1.07 
1.22 
3.48 
2.14 


Incites. 

3.24 
2.44 
5.79 
2.15 
2.87 
4.89 
5.20 
2.92 
5.83 
4.03 
13.49 
2.54 
2.85 
7.62 
6.43 
1.43 
7.05 
5.59 
1.79 


Incites. 

0.35 

.56 

2.09 

.71 

.52 

1.49 

1.51 

.32 

1.29 

2.94 

7.41 

.70 

.38 

2.76 

3.80 

.44 

2.31 

2.10 

.41 


Inches. 

0.82 

.08 
.91 

1.67 
.22 

1.16 
.99 
.24 
.58 
.45 

1.05 
.52 
.41 

2.46 
.44 
.13 
.83 
.89 
.50 


Inches. 

4.89 
2.19 
5.40 
8.15 
3.71 
12.42 
4.47 
5.71 
4.83 
1.60 
3.72 
3.74 
5.12 
9.10 
3.46 
3.49 
4.13 
6.95 
3.80 


Inches. 

0.52 
.04 
.81 

1.96 
.15 

5.47 
.63 
.34 
.53 
.13 
.43 
.88 

1.04 

2.96 
.19 
.19 
.38 

1.48 
.61 
























Mean _ . . 


3.86 


3.80 


3.19 


2.02 


4.64 


1.69 


4.00 


.76 


5.10 


.99 



bascom.J NESHAMINY CREEK. 31 

Rainfall and run-off, Neshaminy Creek, Pennsylvania, etc.— Continued. 





August . 


September. 


Total. 


Evapora- 
tion. 


Year. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rainfall. 


Yield. 


1883-84 

1884-85 

1885-86 

1886-87 


Inches. 
3. 58 
6.38 
1.60 
3.84 
5.78 
4.75 
5.30 
6.73 
3.37 
7.41 
2.68 
3.37 
.98 
3.39 
7.97 
4.30 
2.68 
7.43 
4.30 


Indies. 

0.51 
.96 
.15 
.81 
.64 

3.37 
.53 

1.95 
.20 

1.12 
.34 
.67 
.20 

1.08 

1.06 

1.44 
.19 

2.74- 
.90 


Incites. 

0.31 
1.16 

.91 
4.06 
6.93 
8. 56 
2.99 
2.54 
2.59 
3.36 
8.18 

.74 
5.88 
1.33 
1.88 
6.97 
2.65 
4.05 
5.38 


Indies. 

0.06 
.03 
.05 
.41 

2.63 

3.51 
.39 

1.27 
.11 
.57 

2.27 
.05 
.96 
22 
.10 
.64 
.09 

1.57 

1.12 


Inches. 
45. 02 
38.28 
50.25 
51.89 
48.78 
60. 55 
52. 95 
49.16 
42. 26 
45. 27 
51.52 
41.39 
^2.67 
■5.08 
47.64 
50.38 
43.04 
47.41 
49.73 
50. 36 


Inches. 

28. 35 
19. 35 
25.07 
21.38 
25. 43 
30.34 
26. 25 
24.48 
17.54 
22.61 
25. 42 
21.76 
14. 34 
19.77 
19.99 
25.54 
18.04 
18. 53 
25.40 
29.82 


Inches. 
16.67 
18.93 
25. 18 
30. 51 


1887-88 

1888-89 


23. 35 
30.21 


1889-90 

1890-91 


26.70 
24.68 


1891-92 

1892-93 . . 


24.72 
22 66 


1893-94 


26 10 


1894-95...: 

1895-96 

1896-97 . 


19.63 
28. 33 
25 31 


1897-98 

1898-99 

1899-1900 

1900-1901 


27.65 

24.84 
25. 00 

28 88 


1901-2 

1902-3 .. 


24.33 














Mean 


4.52 


.99 


3.71 


.84 


47.68 


22.97 


24.93 





irr 106—04 3 



32 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

SCHUYLKILL RIVER. 

Somewhat more than one-fourth of the total length of the Schuylkill 
River, or 30 miles, lies in the Philadelphia district. Its drainage 
basin has an area of 1,915 square miles. The river has its headwaters 
in the anthracite coal regions of Schuylkill County, flows across the 
Triassic sediments and the Paleozoic and pre-Paleozic crystallines of 
the Piedmont Plateau, and empties into the Delaware at Philadelphia. 
From source to mouth the Schuylkill has a fall of about 800 feet, or 
an average grade of 8 feet to the mile. Most of this fall is above 
Reading. From Reading to Norristown, a distance of 41 miles, the 
fall is 141 feet, or 3^ feet to a mile; from Norristown to the Delaware, 
a distance of 18 miles, it is GO feet, or 3^ feet to a mile. 

Above Reading the Schuylkill is highby charged with sulphuric 
acid and iron sulphate. This acid is neutralized near Reading by the 
entrance of two tributaries from the limestone belt bearing calcium 
carbonate in solution. From Reading to Norristown the towns on 
the Schuylkill obtain their water suppty from the river. From Nor- 
ristown to Philadelphia all sewage and industrial refuse of the towns 
along the stream drain into it. Until the present year this water has 
been pumped at five stations and distributed unfiltered to the city of 
Philadelphia. Over 90 per cent of the water consumed in Philadel- 
phia comes from the Schuylkill, the remainder being furnished by 
the Delaware River. 

In this connection it is of interest to note that the average number 
of bacteria per cubic centimeter of Schuylkill River water for 1902 
was 14,160. The maximum for the same year was 86,000 and the 
minimum 630 per cubic centimeter. 

Precipitation and stream flow on the Schuylkill, as observed by Mr. 
Codman, are shown in the table on page 33. 

Mr. Codman states that with no additional storage the Schuylkill 
will furnish a supply of at least 225,000,000 gallons per da}^. With an 
artificial storage of probably not more than 100,000,000 gallons per 
square mile of the watershed of 1,800 square miles above Norristown, 
the Schuylkill could be depended upon for a supply of 1,000,000,000 
gallons per day. The natural facilities afforded for storage dams are 
such that the above volume of water could be safely and cheaply 
stored. 



BASCOM.] 



SCHUYLKILL RIVER. 



33 



Comparison of rainfall flowing off in the Perkiomen and Neshaminy creeks and 

Schuylkill River. 



Year. 


Perkiomen. 


Neshaminy. 


Schuylkill. 




Inches. 


Indies. 


Indus. 


1898 . 


21.50 
24.66 


22. 22 
21.06 


24. 39 


1899 


22.29 


1900 


15.21 


17.27 


18.23 


1901 


17.55 


22.88 


17.80 


1902 . :_-- 


29.01 


30.74 


29.02 



Rainfall and run-off in basin of Schuylkill River. a 
[Drainage area, 1,915 square miles.] 



Month. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run-off. 


Monthly yield 
of stream. 


Average daily yield of 
stream. 


Average 
yield pet- 
second per 
square 
mile. 


1901. 

October 

November 

December 

1902. 


Indies. 
1.670 
2.280 
7.970 

3.540 


Indies. 
0.914 

.585 
3.315 

3.228 


Per ct. 
55 
25 
43 

' 91 


Cubic feet. 
4,065,530,000 
2,596,150,000 
14,753,200,000 

14,360,500,000 
18,278,000,000 
24,204,200,000 
11,673,500,000 
4,400,760,000 
2,384,770,000 
3,589,200,000 
3,248,420,000 
4,283,540,000 


Cubic feet. 
131,134,000 
86,538,000 
475,910,000 

463,242,000 
652,785,000 
780,779,000 
389,016,000 
142,180,000 
79,492,000 
115,780,000 
104,784,000 
142,763,000 


Gallons. 
981,030,000 
647,350,000 
3,560,030,000 

3,465,290,000 

4,883,170,000 

5,840,530,000 

2,910,790,000 

1,063,600,000 

594,430,000 

866,097,000 

783,842,000 

1,068,000,000 


Cubic feet. 

0. 7926 

.5230 

2. 8763 

2.8000 




6.040 


4.107 68 


3. 9453 




4.420 
3.690 
1.510 
6.320 
4.280 
3.520 
6.500 


5. 439 123 


4.7190 


April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 


2.623 

.990 
.548 
.807 
.730 
.963 


71 
65 

8 
18 
21 
15 


2. 3519 
.8590 
.4810 
.7000 
. 6330 
. 8630 


Total 


51. 740 


24. 233 


46 


107,837,770,000 


295,446,000 


2,210,090,000 


1.7822 


October 

Novem ber 

December 


5.982 
1.730 
7.110 


2.748 
1.290 
5.582 


46 

74 

78 


12,229,800,000 

5,741,780,000 

24,842,000,000 


394,510,000 
191,393,000 
801,343,000 


2,951,140,000 
1,431,620,000 
5,994,500,000 


2.3844 
1. 1567 
4. 8432 


Total 




29.016 






















1 



a Report of the bureau of water, Philadelphia, 1903. 



34 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 
Monthly precipitation, in inches, on sundry ivater sheds. a 





Philadelphia district. Schuylkill basin. 




United 

States 

Weather 

Bureau . 


Water 
bureau 
auto. 


Water 

bureau 

ground 

gage. 


Penn- 
syl- 
vania 
Hospi- 
tal. 


Shaw- 
mut. 


Leba- 
non/ 


Read- 
ing. 


Potts- 
ville. 


E row- 
ers. 


Ham- 
burg. 


Elevation 
above sea 
level (feet). 


207 


66 

2.40 
5.24 
2.20 
3.14 
1.60 
6.07 
4.20 
2.94 
5.26 
5.65 
1.53 
6.68 


49 


25 


368 


480 


207 


150 


86 


365 


1902. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September - - . 

October . 

November ._. 
December 


2.77 
5.49 
3.97 
3.29 
2.01 
6.08 
3.51 
2.34 
4.97 
6.66 
2.04 
6.63 


2.51 
5.12 
2.25 
3.27 
1.67 
6.29 
4.34 
3.05 
5.48 
5. 51 
1.54 
6.67 


2.55 
4.02 
6.10 
3.29 
3.51 
5.26 
5.50 
2.59 
4.61 
8.02 
2.47 
7.67 


2.09 
5.09 
3.59 
3.06 
1.73 
5.10 
4.52 
2.90 
4.31 
6.29 
1.75 
6.39 


3.62 
5.67 
4.79 
3.38 
.43 
6.18 
4.21 
5.49 
4.43 
5.93 
1.45 
7.46 


3.45 

6.72 
3.00 
3.96 
1.09 
5.29 
3.52 
4.31 
6.87 
4.50 
1.76 
7.10 


4.41 
5.64 
5.49 
4.36 

.87 
7.12 
6.43 
5.01 
6.34 
6.04 
1.61 
7.80 


3. 55 

3.80 
3.12 
2.03 
7.05 
3.83 
3.04 
5.91 
6.39 
2.11 
7.20 


4.09 
6.44 
4.38 
4. 59 

6.06 

3.98 

.51 

6.64 


Total _ . 
Percent 


49.76 
100 


47.11 
95 


47.70 
96 


55. 59 

112 


46.82 
94 


53.04 
107 


51.57 
104 


61.12 
123 


54.12 
109 




20 years yearly 
average: 

Inches . _ _ 

Per cent- . 


40.15 
100 


41.08 
102 


43.71 

108 


44.97 
112 


44.20 
111 


45.32 
113 


42.82 
107 


56.36 
141 


44.57 

108 




Average in- 
crease, 1902: 

Inches ... 

Per cent- - 


9.61 

24 


6.03 

15 


6.99 

17 


10.62 
26 


2.62 
65 


7.72 
19 


8.75 
22 


4.76 

85 


9.55 
24 





a Report of the bureau of water, Philadelphia, 1903. 



bascom.] VARIOUS WATERSHEDS. 35 

Monthly precipitation, in inches, on sundry wate?*sheds— Continued. 



Perkiomen basin, 



Elevation above sea 
level (feet) 

1902. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 

Per cent 

20 years yearly aver- 
age: 

Inches 

Percentage 

Average increase, 
1902: 

Inches 

Per cent 



Seis- 
holtz- 
ville. 



870 



4.39 
6.49 
4.55 
4.32 

2.08 
6.54 
3.89 
6.1? 
7.24 
6.05 
1.74 
8.51 



61.97 
125 



50.25 
122 



11.72 
29 



Spring- 
mount. 



300 



2.80 
5.72 
3.41 
2.61 
2.42 
4.74 
J3.77 
1.94 
7.83 
6.26 
2.13 
6.35 



48.98 
99 



45.69 
114 



3.29 

82 



Delaware basin. 



Eastern. 



340 



2.49 

5.80 
3.37 
3.35 

2.22 
6.50 
4.52 
3.65 
8.31 
5.35 
1.26 
7. 22 



54.04 
109 



46.07 
115 



7.97 
20 



Moores- 

town. 



65 



West- 
chester 



455 



4.06 
7.18 
4.65 
4.63 
1.60 
6.75 
3.61 
4.12 
7.00 
7.92 
2.60 
7.95 



62.07 
125 



51.61 

128 



10.46 
26 



Neshaminy basin. 



Lans- 
dale. 



Forks of 
Nesha- 
miny. 



350 



3.19 

6.92 
3.74 
3.53 
1.52 
3.50 
2.68 
3.15 
4.08 
5.39 
1.63 
6.45 



45. 78 
92 



45.81 
114 



Doyles- 
town. 



143 



2.53 
5.32 
3.45 
3.39 
2.02 
6.89 
4.70 
4.61 
5.74 
6.05 
1.75 
6.59 



53. 04 

107 



46.47 
116 



t>. 03 
&.00 



6.57 

16 



405 



4.00 
7.43 
6.16 

3.28 
1.83 
6.13 
4.03 
5.14 
6.33 
7.77 
1.59 
7.94 



61.63 
124 



48.47 
118 



13.16 

32 



b Decrease. 



SCHUYLKILL TRIBUTARIES. 

The chief tributaries of the Schuylkill are the Perkiomen, the Pick- 
ering, and the Wissahickon. The less important ones are Valle}^, 
Trout, Gulf, and Mill creeks. Valley and Gulf creeks possess pecu- 
liar courses, which are evidently due to stream capture. The}^ turn 
abruptly away from direct courses to the Schuylkill and cut deep 
ravines through ridges of hard rock. These minor tributaries drain 



36 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

the southwest side of the Schuj'lkill basin, and their drainage area is 
being extended into the area now drained by the southwestern tribu- 
taries of the Delaware. 

The Perkiomen, which flows through the Philadelphia district in 
the last 10 miles of its course, has its source in the Paleozoic crystallines 
to the northwest of the Triassic formations. Its watershed is almost 
wholly in the Triassic shale belt, and comprises an area of 447.59 
square miles, 152 square miles of which are above the gaging station at 
the entrance of the Northeast Branch. The Perkiomen falls from 
its source to the gaging station about 800 feet in 24 miles, and from 
the gaging station to its mouth 40 feet in 11 miles. The drainage 
basin of the Perkiomen is similar in character to that of the Nesha- 
min}^, which is contiguous on the northeast, and which has already 
been discussed. The proportions of woodland, cultivated land, etc., 
for the Perkiomen are as follows : a Woodland, 20 percent; cultivated 
land, 77.5 per cent; flats, 0.5 per cent; roads, 2 per cent. 

Observations of the rainfall and run-off of the Perkiomen have 
been made by Mr. Codman for twenty years, and the results are 
shown in the table on pages 37-39 and also on PL III (p. 28). The 
facts that were brought out in the case of the Neshaminy are shown 
with equal clearness for the Perkiomen. 

While the months of January, February, and March are usually 
months of maximum flow, and August, September, and October 
months of minimum flow, these conditions are sometimes reversed. 
This is shown by the record of the Perkiomen, on which the maximum 
flow for one day for the year 1888 — 22,500,000 gallons per square mile 
of watershed — occurred in September and has been exceeded but a 
few times since. 

The maximum observed flow up to the present time (1904) for one 
day was 27,300,000 gallons per square mile of watershed, on February 
28, 1902; while the minimum observed flow for one day was only 
21,700 gallons per square mile, in September, 1885. 

The average daily flow of the Perkiomen from 1884 to 1897 was 
177,900,000 gallons, or 1,160,000 gallons per square mile of the water- 
shed above the gaging station. The maximum flow was 4,149,600,000 
gallons per da} T , more than eighteen days' pumpage of all the Philadel- 
phia water bureau plant, and the minimum flow was 3,800,000 gallons 
per day, or about twenty-five minutes' pumpage. 



a Codman, John E., op. cit., p. 181. 



BASCOM.] 



PERKIOMEN CREEK. 



37 



Rainfall and run-off, Perkiomen Creek, Pennsylvania, from 1883 to 1903. a 
[Area of watershed, 152 square miles.] 





October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


Year. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


1883-84 

1884-85 

1885-86 

1886-87 . 

1887-88 . 

1888-89 

1889-90 

1890-91 

1891-92 

1892-93 

1893-94 

1894-95 

1895-96 

1S96-97 

1897-98 

1898-99 

1899-1900 

1900-1901 

1901-2 


Inches. 
5.27 
3.69 
4.74 
2.35 
1.45 
3.41 
4.78 
5.48 
3.53 
.48 
2.82 
6.24 
3.46 
4.72 
2.06 
5. 12 
1.29 
2.16 
1.86 
6.16 


Inches. 

1.42 
.37 

.43 

.26 

.43 

1.26 

2.34 

2.35 

.56 

.20 

.89 

1.66 

.23 

1.48 

.22 

.59 

.56 

.£9 

.61 

2.78 


Inches. 
1.93 
3.26 
3.88 
5.28 
1.61 
3.42 
8.66 
1.12 
1.99 
6.64 
4.22 
2.80 
1.86 
4.72 
6.38 
6.60 
2.61 
2. 25 
2.31 
1.94 


Inches. 

0.91 

.91 

1.79 

1.53 

.40 

2,46 

6.67 

.87 

.60 

2.13 

1.84 

1.85 

.34 

2.06 

1.75 

3.08 

1.02 

.37 

.53 

.90 


Inches. 
4.00 
6.08 
3.18 
3.76 
6.65 
4.37 
1.70 
2.71 
4.73 
1.88 
2.75 
4.81 
3.13 
.65 
4.37 
3.64 
1.72 
2.53 
7.17 
7.43 


Inches. 

1.04 
3.77 
2.45 
1.43 
2.13 
2.88 
1.27 
1.14 
2.89 
1.22 
1.90 
2.83 
.91 
.81 
2.76 
3.25 
.94 
.64 
4.22 
6.45 


Inches. 
5.14 
3.76 
4.21 
4.55 
5.01 
3.86 
2.81 
6.30 
5.56 
2.38 
1.78 
4.30 
.91 
2.05 
4.04 
3.48 
2.62 
2.38 
3.60 


Inches. 
5.40 
3.27 
3.03 
4.00 
3.66 
3.27 
2.05 
5.29 
4.79 
1.45 

.70 
3.06 

.59 
1.18 
2.56 
3.57 
2.24 
1.05 
2.68 


Inches. 
5. 04 
4.41 
5.08 
5.64 
4.08 
1.99 
4.37 
3.84 
1.25 
5.53 
4.22 
1.58 
5.97 
2.90 
3.18 
4.44 
5.04 
.69 
5.11 


Inches. 

9.73 
2.16 
5.64 
4.23 
4.41 
1.47 
3.58 
4.18 
1.17 
4.04 
2.42 
1.25 
3.50 
2.93 
3.33 
4.51 
5. 07 
.30 
5.39 


1902-3 
















Mean _ . . 


3.56 


.95 


3.68 


1.60 3.87 

| 


2.25 


3.62 


2.83 


3.91 


3.65 



"Compiled from reports of Philadelphia bureau of water, 1884-1903, by R. S. Lea, with addi- 
tional data for 1903. 



38 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

Rainfall and run-off, Perkio7tien Creek, Pennsylvania, etc. — Continued. 





March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Year. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


1883-84 

1884-85 

1885-86 

1886-87 

1887-88 

1888-89 

1889-90 

1890-91 

1891-92 

1892-93 

1893-94 

1894-95 

1895-96 

1896-97 

1897-98 

1898-99 

1899-1900 

1900-1901 

1901-2 

1902-3 


Indies. 
5.04 
1.32 
3.96 
2.99 
5. 15 
3.17 
6. 56 
6.07 
4.99 
2.90 
1.45 
2.96 
4.43 
2.38 
2.56 
5.83 
2.88 
5.34 
3.93 


Inches. 
5.29 
2.52 
2.56 
3.03 
5.10 
3.01 
5.58 
4.29 
4.05 
4.93 
2.38 
3.91 
3.83 
1.83 
1.56 
6.59 
2.49 
3.34 
5.05 


Inches. 
2.63 
2.41 
3.00 
2.84 
3.43 
5.05 
2.79 
1.98 
1.79 
4.11 
2.54 
6.12 
1.85 
3.30 
3.86 
2.00 
1.96 
5.18 
3.47 


Inches. 
2.37 
2.75 
3.42 
1.25 
3.45 
2.07 
2.51 
1.80 
1.16 
2.30 
1.71 
3.48 
.97 
1.64 
1.68 
1.80 
1.31 
2.48 
2.21 


Inches. 

3.40 
2.49 
6.60 
1.85 
3.16 
4.55 
6.43 
1.99 
5.32 
5.36 
11.63 
3.45 
3.70 
8.72 
6.22 
3.41 
2.98 
4.90 
2.20 


Inches. 

1.36 

.82 

2.64 

.72 

.92 

1.58 

3.15 

.65 

1.83 

3.27 

6.66 

.98 

.43 

3.98 

3.83 

.76 

.89 

1.79 

.75 


Inches. 
4.65 
1.48 
5.26 
5.87 
1.62 
7.16 
2.40 
3.02 
3.18 
3.75 
3.61 
3.56 
4.53 
3.17 
.96 
3.90 
3.01 
2.36 
5.64 


Inches. 

1.26 
.28 

1.89 
.76 
.39 

2.65 
.94 
.36. 
.89 
.56 

1.13 
.43 
.48 
.93 
.42 
.54 
.34 
.87 
.53 


Inches. 

7.44 
2.18 
5.06 
8.63 
2.77 
12.23 
5.19 
7.73 
5.19 
2.00 
2.93 
3.96 
9.31 
7.79 
2.85 
5.76 
4.97 
5.13 
3.33 


Indies. 

2.16 

.17 

1.11 

2.07 

.25 

4.89 

1.09 

.85 

.73 

.30 

.58 

.61 

2.01 

1.56 

.33 

.79 

.96 

.34 

.55 
























Mean . _ _ 


3.89 


3.75 


3.17 


2.12 


4.64 


1.95 


3.64 


.82 


5.50 


1.12 



bascom.] PERKIOMEN CREEK. 39 

Rainfall and run-off, PerMomen Creek, Pennsylvania, etc. — Continued. 





August. 


September. 


Total. 


Evapo. 
ration. 


Year. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run- 
off. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Run-off. 


1883-84. 


Inches. 
3.44 
6. 17 
1.44 
2.76 
8.03 
3.99 
6. 75 
7.57 
2.69 
6.45 
2.23 
3.36 
1.21 
2.73 
6.16 
4.46 
3.74 
8.70 
4.06 


Indies. 

0. 65 

1.23 

.35 

1.43 

1.53 

2.48 

1.08 

2.04 

.76 

.96 

.34 

.28 

.34 

.59 

.63 

1.13 

.41 

1.39 

.52 


Inches. 
0.59 
.87 
1.37 
3.64 
7. 35 
7.00 
3.71 
2.63 
2.21 
3.14 
6.36 
.93 
5.18 
1.62 
2.22 
7.46 
1.80 
3.27 
7.54 


Inches. 

0.31 

.16 

.23 

.62 

3.68 

2.80 

1.30 

1.53 

.33 

.60 

1.67 

.18 

.65 

.29 

.22 

2.44 

.24 

.63 

1.21 


Inches. 

48.57 
38.12 
47. 78 
50.16 
50.31 
60.20 
56. 15 
50. 44 
42.43 
44.62 
46.54 
44.07 
45. 54 
44.75 
44.86 
56. 10 
34. 62 
44.89 
50. 27 
52.84 


Incites. 
31.90 
18.41 
25. 54 
21.33 
26.35 
30.82 
31.56 
25. 35 
19.76 
21.96 
22. 22 
20. 52 
14.31 
19.28 
19. 29 
29.06 
16.47 
13.49 
24. 25 
31.96 


Inches. 
16.67 


1884-85 


19.71 


1885-86 


22.24 


1886-87- ... .. 


28. 83 


1887-88 


23. 96 


1888-89 


29.38 


1889-90 


24. 59 


1890-91 


25.09 


1891-92 

1892-93 


22.67 
2.2. 65 


1893-94 


24.32 


1894-95 _..'_ 


23.55 


1895-96_ 


31.23 


1896-97 


25.47 


1897-98. 


25. 57 


1898-99 


27.01 


1899-1900 


18. 15 


1900-1901 . 

1901-2-- 


31.40 
26.02 


1902-3 
















Mean 


4.52 


.96 


3.63 


1.0.1 


47.66 


23.19 


24. 66 



Pickering Creek, which is shown on the western edge of the Norris- 
town atlas sheet, is the smallest of the larger tributaries of the Schuyl- 
kill River. It has a drainage basin of 65.88 square miles. It flows 
for the most part through pre-Cambrian gneiss, but for the last 3 miles 
of its course over Triassic formations. Its minimum daily flow is esti- 
mated at 4,000,000 gallons, and its maximum daily flow at 4,000,000,000 
gallons. 



40 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 108. 



Wissahickon Creek drains the area between the drainage basins of 
the Little Neshaminy and the Perkioinen. It rises near Lansdale, in 
the northern portion of the Philadelphia district, and flows southerly 
for 20 miles, emptying into the Schuylkill River at Fairmount Park. 
It is one of the three chief tributaries of the Schuylkill in the Phila- 
delphia district and is the most important of the creeks that are wholly 
within the district. Its watershed has an area of 64.6 square miles 
and is composed partly of the Triassic formations and partly of Pale- 
ozoic crystallines. The creek has a fall of 420 feet from source to 
mouth, or an average descent of 21 feet to a mile. From Chestnut 
Hill to the Schuylkill, a distance of 6 miles, there is a descent of 100 
feet, or about 17 feet to the mile. In this portion of its course the 
stream has cut a gorge to a depth of about 200 feet below the general 
level of the country. Here the banks are wooded and steep, but in a 
portion of its upper course the stream is bordered by an open val- 
ley, which is part of a fertile and cultivated farming region. As on 
Neshaminy Creek, the percentage of woodland is small. 

The monthly rainfall and the monthly and average daily flow of 
the Wissahickon from October, 1901, to April, 1902, as observed by 
Mr. Codman, are given in the following table. 

Precipitation and stream flow on the Wissahickon ivatershed.a 
[Area, 64.6 square miles.] 





Rain- 
fall. 


Rain- 
fall 
flow- 
ing off. 


Per- 
cent- 
age 
flow- 


Monthly yield 
of stream. 


Average daily yield of stream. 


Average 
yieldper 
second 

per 

square 

mile. 


1901. 


Inches. 


Inches. 




Cubic feet. 


Cubic feet. 


Gallons. 


Cu. ft. 


October 


1.355 


0.541 


40 


81,112,000 


2, 616, 500 


19,573,000 


0.468 


November 


2.705 


.647 


24 


97, 105, 000 


3,236,900 


24, 213, 200 


.580 


December __..__ 


6. 765 


2. 430 


36 


364,824,000 


11,768,500 


88, 034, 000 


2. 1085 


1902. 
















January 


2.640 


1.798 


68 


269,931,000 


707, 430 


65, 136, 200 


1.5601 


February 


5.960 


4.462 


75 


669, 574, 000 


23, 913, 400 


178, 884, 000 


4. 2844 


March 


3.665 


4.629 


126 


694, 768, 000 


22,411,900 


167, 653, 000 


4.0154 


April 


3.295 


2.321 


77 


348, 296, 000 


11,609,800 


86,847,700 


2. 0801 



"Report of bureau of water, Philadelphia, 1903. 



Owing to a leak in the new dam above the automatic gage, it was 
necessary to drain off the lower reservoir, putting an end to stream 
observations after May 22, 1902. It will be noted that the storage of 
rainfall during December and January is somewhat greater in the 
Wissahickon than in the watersheds heretofore discussed. 



BASCOM.] 



SCHUYLKILL TRIBUTARIES. 



41 



In the following tables comparative figures of rainfall and run-off 
are given for a number of the watersheds of tributaries of the Dela- 
ware and Schuylkill and for a few other streams : 

Run-off, in inches, of Perkiomen and Neshaminy drainage areas. 



Watershed. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Perkiomen at Frederick : 


























Average for 19 years . 


2.84 


3.66 


3.77 


2.12 


1.413 


0.82 


1.25 


0.95 


0.96 


0.92 


1.58 


2.32 


Maximum in 19 years - 


5.40 


9.73 


5.58 


3.48 


6.66 


2.65 


4.89 


2.48 


3.68 


2.77 


6.67 


6.45 


Minimum in 19 years. 


.59 


1.25 


2.38 


.97 


.46 


.28 


.17 


.28 


.16 


.20 


.24 


.63 


Neshaminy below Forks: 


























Average for 19 years. 


3.20 


4.12 


3.55 


2.05 


1.89 


.75 


1.03 


.99 


.84 


.81 


1.42 


2.46 


Maximum in 19 years. 


6.77 


10.41 


5.55 


3.57 


7.41 


2.46 


5.47 


3.37 


3.51 


4.55 


6.31 


5.55 


Minimum in 19 years. 


1.60 


.90 


1.84 


1. 03 


.85 


.08 


.04 


.14 


.03 


.06 


.11 


.41 



Comparative daily stream flow of certain streams of Philadelphia district, 1901 

and 1902. a 





Area of 
water- 
shed. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Watershed. 


Gallons per day. 


Gallons per 
square mile. 


Date. 


Gallons 
per day. 


Gallons 

per 

square 

mile. 


Date. 


Perkiomen 

Neshaminy . . . 


152 
139.3 
64.6 
1,915 


4,420,000,000 

3,930,000,000 

1,288,200,000 

53,098,600,000,000 


27,300,000 
28,250,000 
20,000,000 
27, 700, 000 


Feb. 28 
Feb. 26 
Feb. 28 
Mar. 1 


11,631,000 
8,080,000 


76,400 
57,800 


Aug. 25 
July 21 


Schuylkill .... 

















Average annual yield of sundry watersheds to October 1, 1902. « 





















Aver- 




















age 


















Aver- 


yield 
per sec- 




w 

>1 




Aver- 


Aver- 


Per 






yield 
per sec- 
ond 
per 


ond 

per 

square 


Watershed. 




Area. 


age 
rain 


age fall 
flow- 


cent 
flow- 


Average an- 
nual yield. 


Average 
daily yield. 


mile of 
drain- 




& 




fall. 


ing off. 


ing off. 








age 




> 
O 














drain- 


area 
for 


















age 


each 




o 
















inch of 




f* 
















rain- 




fc 
















fall. 






Miles. 


Inches. 


Inches. 




Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Cu.ft. 


Cu.ft. 


Perkiomen at 




















Frederick. 


19 


152 


47.366 


22.696 


48 


59,948,940,000 


164,211,500 


1.6716 


0.0353 


Neshaminy, b e - 




















low Forks 


19 


139.3 


47. 721 


2.484 


47. 118 


54,427,535,000 


149,093,800 


1. 6561 


.0347 


Tohickon 


19 


102.2 


48. 685 


27. 344 


56. 200 


48,592,436,000 


133,023,000 


2.0140 


.0413 


Wissahickon & 


4- 


64.6 
1,915 
















Schuylkill 


47.135 


20. 843 


48. 400 




1,900,801,000 ' 


'1.5359 


. 0325 


Sudbury, Mass ... 


27 


72.5 


46.39 


22. 702 


48.90 




78,371,000 


1. 6750 


.0362 


Croton, N.Y. 


19 


338 


45.97 


22. 760 


49.50 


135,400,000,000 


371,600,000 


1.680 


.0365 



"Report of the bureau of water, Philadelphia, 1903. 
&No record after April. 



42 WATER RESOURCES 01? PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

COASTAL PLAIN HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN. 
DRAINAGE. 

The portion of the Coastal Plain included in the Philadelphia dis- 
trict lies wholly within the watershed of the Delaware River and hence 
slopes toward that stream. Its greatest altitude, in the extreme 
southeast corner of the Philadelphia quadrangle, is 180 feet above sea 
level. Its streams are all subsequent, and tributary to the Delaware. 
Pensauken, Cooper, Big Timber, Woodbury, Mantua, Raccoon, and 
Oldmans creeks are simple streams, which have their sources in the 
upper Cretaceous marls or on the boundary of the Miocene sands, and 
flow northwest across the marls, cla} 7 marls, and plastic clays of the 
Cretaceous into the Delaware. As the streams flow through uncon- 
solidated materials and have an average fall of only 8 feet to a mile, 
their valleys are shallow and interrupted by mill ponds in the upper 
courses, and flat and marshy with meandering channels in the lower 
courses. The creeks are from 10 to 16 miles long and are tidal for 
about half their total length. Owing to this fact they have, as will 
be seen by the tables given below, little importance for water-power 
purposes. According to the observations made by the New Jersey 
geological survey these streams are in a district which shows little 
difference between the average rainfall and the average evaporation. 
This means that the average run-off of these streams is smaller than 
that of streams of the same class elsewhere in the State. 

Pensauken Creek empties into the Delaware River at Morris. It 
drains 35. 4 square miles. The geological survey of New Jersey reports 
that— 

Its watershed is populous and highly cultivated, and the stream is tidal for 
about half its length, consequently it has little importance. Moorestown is sup- 
plied from its headwaters, but the quality of its water is said to be unsatisfactory. 
The average flow at the mouth of the stream is 39,900,000 gallons daily, and the 
least monthly flow 5,900,000 gallons daily. « 

Cooper Creek empties into the Delaware at Camden. It is tidal to 
the forks at Haddonfield, and the lower portion of its watershed is 
populous and highly cultivated. The average flow is estimated by 
the New Jersey survey at 40,000,000 gallons daily and the flow for 
the driest month at 6,800,000 gallons daily. 

Above the pond at Haddonfield the minimum flow is 3,050,000 gallons daily. 
With storage amounting to 3.28 inches it will furnish 8,600,000 gallons daily. 

The only part of Cooper Creek which is worthy of serious consideration as a 
water supply is North Branch. Its watershed is 11.7 square miles and the flow 
for the driest month 1,900,000 gallons daily, or with 3.28 inches storage it will yield 
5,660,000 gallons daily. The opportunities for storage are very good, but like all 
streams with marl outcrops, it should have careful inspection before being 
adopted as a source of supply. 

The North Branch is almost entirely undeveloped for water-power purposes. 
Near Ellisburg 20 feet fall could be readily obtained, and the available power for 

"Geol. Survey New Jersey, vol. 3, p. 255. 



COASTAL PLAIN DRAINAGE. 



43 



nine months would be 0.87 horsepower per foot fall. As good pondage could be 
obtained, this would give about o.~> horsepower for twelve hours daily during nine 
months of the year. On the main creek at Haddonfield mills we estimate 1.35 
horsepower per foot fall day and night for nine months. A corn mill was erected 
on this site as early as 1697/* 

Big Timber Creek empties into the Delaware at Gloucester. It 
drains an area of 59.03 square miles and is tidal to Good Intent. Its 
headwaters are on the Tertiary sands and gravels, and hence above 
Grenloch and Laurel Springs its brandies would furnish fair local 
water supply. The New Jersey survey estimates the average flow of 
the creek at its mouth to be 55,400,000 gallons daily, and in the driest 
month 9,980,000 gallons daily. 

In the table below are given the figures of aggregate flow of the 
Coastal Plain tributaries of the Delaware between Camden and 
Bridget on. 

Floiv of tributaries of the Delaware — Camden to BriolgetonJ> 
AVERAGE YEAR. 





Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Year. 


Inches of rainfall- . 


3. 72 


3.62 


3.44 


3.72 


3.62 


4.04 


4.04 


4.22 


4.58 


3.72 


3.44 


3.72 


45.88 


Inches flowing off - 


cl.70 


2.90 


2.71 


2.75 


2.22 


1.92 


1.13 


.87 


.79 


.78 


.84 


1.00 


19.61 


Flow in 1,000 gal- 
lons daily per 
square mile 


952 


1,625 


1,620 


1,540 


1,280 


1,070 


655 


487 


442 


452 


471 


579 


933 


Horsepower per 1 
foot fall per 
square mile 


0.168 


0.286 


0.285 


0.27L 


0.226 


0.189 


0.115 


0.086 


0. 078 


0.079 


0.083 


0.102 


0.165 









ORDINARY DRY YEAR 














Inches of rainfall. . 


4.04 


4.12 


1.7.1 


3.02 


2.67 


3.44 


3.82 


4.55 


4.00 


1.01 


2.14 


2.28 


36.80 


Inches flowing off. 


3.11 


3.35 


1.17 


2.13 


2.05 


1.33 


.96 


.85 


.72 


.46 


.38 


.47 


16.98 


Flow in 1,000 gal- 
lons daily per 
square mile 


1,740 


1,870 


700 


1,190 


1,185 


745 


555 


532 


403 


266 


213 


272 


808 


Horsepower per 1 
foot fall per 
square mile 


0. 307 


0.330" 


0.123 


0.210 


0.209 


0. 131 


0.098 


0.084 


0.070 


0.047 


0.037 


0.048 


0.143 



DRIEST PERIOD. 



Inches of rainfall.. 


4.05 


3.66 


4.76 


3.83 


0.61 


2.71 


3.87 


0.96 


1.18 


0.94 


3.04 


2.02 


31.63 


Inches flowing off . 


3.10 


2.93 


3.87 


2.85 


1.46 


.91 


.84 


.46 


.30 


.30 


.30 


.30 


17.62 


Flow in 1,000 gal- 
lons daily per 
square mile 


1,735 


1,640 


2,315 


1,595 


845 


510 


486 


257 


168 


173 


168 


173 


837 


Horsepower per 1 
-foot fall per 
square mile 


0.306 


0.289 


0.406 


0.281 


0.149 


0.089 


0.086 


0.045 


0.030 


0.031 


0.030 


0.031 


0.148 



DRIEST PERIOD FOR TWO YEARS. 



Inches of rainfall.. 
Inches flowing off . 


2.63 
.30 


4.57 

.47 


4.22 
.87 


3.57 

1.46 


2.12 
1.66 


5.06 
1.45 


1.90 1.37 
.96 .58 


6.40 
.40 


12.09 
2.32 


1.32 
1.63 


0.99 
.98 


46.24 
13.08 



a G-eol. Survey of New Jersey, op. cit. pp. 256-261. 
b Op. cit., p. 257. 

c The ground water is depleted at the end of the average year 1.12 inches, and this is deducted 
from the December flow. 



44 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

The New Jersey survey makes the following report upon the water 
supply and water poAver of Big Timber Creek: 

Above Clementon the watershed of the North Branch is 5.5 square miles, which 
will yield in the driest months 925,000 gallons daily without storage. With 3.28 
inches storage 2,620,000 gallons daily may be obtained. The South Branch, above 
Grenloch, or Spring Mills, drains 15.5 square miles, and will yield, in the driest 
month, 2.610.000 gallons daily, or, with 3.28 inches storage, 7,400,000 gallons daily. 
The portion of the headwaters of Big Timber Creek suitable for water supply 
embraces in all 23 square miles, at an elevation of about 40 feet, with a capacity 
of 14,700,000 gallons daily with storage. 

Such watersheds might be utilized to supply some of the towns near at hand, 
but they should be controlled by purchases of land bordering the streams. * * * 
These headwaters, while they are naturally quite secure from contamination, 
partake of some of the acid character of southern New Jersey streams, although 
generally in a less degree. They are generally free from the brown color of cedar 
swamp streams. 

The power of Big Timber Creek is well utilized, although the fall is not large. 
At Grenloch we estimate 1.8 horsepower per foot fall for nine months. The only 
undeveloped site of any importance seems to be near the upper bridge at Chews 
Landing, on the North Branch, where 30 feet fall and good pondage could be had, 
although this would destroy the power at Laurel Mills. We estimate for this 
point 1.35 horsepower per foot fall, which would give on 30 feet fall 40 horse- 
power day and night, or 80 horsepower for twelve hours during nine months of 
the year, with a minimum of 34 horsepower for twelve hours. 

Woodbury Creek empties into the Delaware northwest of Wood- 
bury. It is more than 7 miles long and is a tidal stream for more 
than half its length and lies wholly upon the marls and clays, hence 
it can not be utilized for domestic supply or water power. 

Mantua Creek empties into the Delaware at Paulsboro. It heads 
in Tertiary sands, but for the most part it flows upon the marls, and 
its water is unfit for domestic supply. Woodbury is supplied from 
its headwaters. The stream drains an area of 51.2 square miles. 
Above Hurffville the New Jersey survey estimates that its water- 
shed has an area of 13 square miles and that the flow for the driest 
month is 2,180,000 gallons daily. With 3.28 inches storage 6,400,000 
gallons could be obtained. 

Above the pond, near Pitman Grove, Chestnut Branch has a drainage area of 
4.4 square miles and a daily flow for the driest month of 740,000 gallons, while 
2,090,000 gallons could be obtained with storage. 

While there may be some other small branches which would afford good supplies 
of a limited amount, the rest of the watershed is open to suspicion and should 
not be accepted without careful examination. 

The stream does not offer large opportunity for the development of water power, 
but near Mantua it would seem possible to develop 20 feet of fall with excellent 
pondage. We estimate for this point an available power of 2.3 horsepower per 
foot fall day and night. 

Raccoon Creek empties into the Delaware northwest of Bridgeport. 
It is navigable to Swedesboro and is tidal for more than half its length. 
The headwaters of the main stream are in Tertiary sands, but the 



tASCOM.] 



COASTAL PLAIN DRAINAGE. 



45 



remainder of its course is almost entirely in the marls, and the stream 
can not be used for domestic supply. 

The water powers developed are generally small, and the only opportunity for 
further development is at the first bridge above Swedesboro, where 20 feet fall 
could be obtained without interfering with existing mill sites. Its available power 
here would be 1.64 horsepower per foot fall, making 32.8 horsepower continuous, 
or 66 horsepower for twelve hours, with a minimum of 28 horsepower for twelve 
hours. 

Oldmans Creek empties into the Delaware in the southwest corner 
of the Philadelphia district. Nine miles southeast of the Philadelphia 
district, above Harrisonville, its headwaters drain the Tertiary sands 
and might furnish a good water supply. The area of this portion of 
its watershed has been estimated as 10 square miles and the daily 
flow for the driest month as 1,680,000 gallons, which, with storage, 
could be raised to 4,700,000 daily. There is still some undeveloped 
fall below Harrisonville, but the power of the stream is small. 

The following estimates have been made by the New Jersey survey 
of the area, percentage of forests, and population on these creeks : a 

Area, percentage of forest, and density of population of ivatersheds of Coastal 
Plain tributaries of Delaware River. 



Creek. 


Area of 

drainage 

basin. 


Percent- 
age of 
forest. 


Popula- 
tion per 
square 
mile. 


Big Timber Creek . _ 


Sq. miles. 
59.3 
19.8 
25.5 
40.5 
11.7 
18.1 
51.2 
46.7 
35.4 
17.1 
14.9 
44.4 
32.2 
13.1 
44.4 
26.3 


25 

27 
27 
16 
16 
21 
16 
17 
10 
7 
12 
12 
12 


83 


North Branch of Big Timber Creek . 


68 


South Branch of Big Timber Creek . 


62 


Cooper Creek 


208 


North Branch of Cooper Creek 


65 


South Branch of Cooper Creek 


62 


Mantua Creek 


106 


Mantua Creek above Berkeley 


83 


Pensauken Creek. . ... 


109 


North Branch of Pensauken Creek 


71 


South Branch of Pensauken Creek 


118 


Raccoon Creek 


91 


Raccoon Creek above Swedesboro . . 


68 


Raccoon Creek above Mullica Hill 




Oldmans Creek 


14 
18 


52 


Oldmans Creek above Auburn . _ . ... 


46 







«Op. cit., Appendix II, p. 56, 



46 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

WATER POWER. 

The following estimates have been made of the total fall, length, 
and average fall per mile of the creeks of the Philadelphia Coastal 
Plain district. 

Length and fall of creeks hi Coastal Plain portion of Philadelphia district. 



Creek. 



Length. 



Bi,^ Timber 

Cooper 

Mantua 

Oldmans . _ 
Pensauken 
Raccoon . . 
Woodbury 



Miles. 
12f-13 
12 
13 
14 
10 
16 
17 



Fall. 



Feet. 
130 
130 
100 
119 

70 
122 

60 



Average 
fall per 

mile. 



Feet. 
10f 
10 

6i 



8i 



The water power utilized on these creeks has been tabulated as 
follows by the New Jersey survey : a 

Water power utilized on the creeks in Coastal Plain portion of Philadelphia 

district. 

COOPER CREEK. 



Stream. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


Kind of mill. 


Fall. 


Horsepower 
utilized. 








Net. 


Gross. 


North Branch 


Marlton, Camden 
County. 

Haddonfleld, Camden 
County. 

Kirkwood, Camden 
County. 

Gibbsboro, Camden 
County. 

do .... 


Hopkins estate 

Jos. G.Evans 


Grist 


Feet. 

12 

11 

18 

8 

8 
22 

15 
24 


30 
50 
30 
20 

( b ) 

(&) 


( b ) 


Cooper Creek 

Do 

Do 


do 


43 


Knickerbocker Ice 
Co. 


do 

do 


70 
45 


Do 


Blakely 




33 




Haddonfleld, Camden 
County. 

do 


Hopkins estate 


Grist 


( b ) 


Branch. 




(ft) 


Branch 


Near Ashland, Cam- 
den County. 


Joseph Kay 


Gristmill site 


. (*>) 



NEWTON CREEK. 



Main Branch 
Do 



Cuthberts, Camden 
County. 

Westmont, Camden 
County. 



J. J. Schuetzius i Flouring . 



JamesFlynn Paint and 

varnish. 



"Op. cit., Appendix I, pp. 37-39. 



ft Not in use. 



BASCOM.J 



WATER POWER. 



47 



Walsr power utilized on the creeks i)t Coastal Plain, etc. — Continued. 

BIG TIMBER CREEK. 





Locality. 


Owner. 


Kind of mill. 


Fall. 


Horsepower 
utilized. 




Net. 


Gross. 


Little Timber j Near Asbury station, 
Creek. Gloucester County. 


H. B. Hendrickson . 

E . Tomlinson 

Theodore Gibbs . _ _ 


Saw and dis- 
tilling. 

Grist 


Feet. 
10 

12 

10 

18 

11 

14 

10 

10 

10 
10 


20 

50 

36 

35 

22 

100 

25 

14 

36 
32 


30 
70 


Do 


County. 

Clementon, Camden 
County. 

Alnaonesson, Glouces- 
ter County. 

Good T ntent, Camden 
County 

Grenloch, Camden 
County. 

Prosser's mills, 
Gloucester County. 

Turnersville,Glouces- 
ter County. 

do 

Near Turnersville, 
Gloucester County. 


do.. 


60 






...do 


50 


Creek. 
South Branch 

Do 

Do 


J. Livermore and 
others. 

E. S. and F. Bate- 
man. 

Thos.Boody 

Turner 

A. W.Nash 

J. Prosser 


do 

Agricultural 
implements 

Grist 


30 
145 
45 


Do 


Saw ... 


20 




Grist 


50 


Do 


Saw 


45 











MANTUA CREEK. 



Mantua Creek . 

Do 

Edwards Run. . 



Do 

Chestnut Branch . 



Do 

Wenonah Branch 



Monongahela 
Branch. 

Dilkesboro 
Branch. 



Near Hurffville, S. O. Bricket. 
Gloucester County. 

Dilkesboro, Glouces- ! Thos. Reeves. 
ter County. 

Near Mantua, Glouces- i Chas. Jessop . 
ter County. 



do. 



Near Bornsboro, 
Gloucester County. 

Pitman Grove, 
Gloucester County. 

Near Wenonah. 
Gloucester County. 

do 



Dilkesboro, Glouces- 
ter County. 



Sam. Boody. 
P. Avis 

G.W. Carr.. 



The Wenonah 
Water Co. 

do. 



W. Jessop. 



Grist.. 

do 

do 



do 

do 

Saw, sash, 
and blind. 

Creamery... 

Mill site 



Saw 



Raccoon Creek 
Do 



Swedes 
Branch. 

Do.... 



b o r o 



Mullica Hill, Glouces- 
ter County 

Evans Mill, Glouces- 
ter County. 

Swedesboro, Glouces- 
ter County. 

Near Swedesboro, 
Gloucester County. 



J. Mount 

D. B. Brown. . 
B. H. Black... 
David Russell 



Grist 

do- 
Flouring 

Grist 



13 


25 


15 


25 


12 


30 


12 


15 


lfij 


20 


6 


30 


17 


4 


10 


a 15 


10 


15 



12 


30 


10 


20 


18 


50 


15 


25 



25 



45 



(a) 



20 



a Not in use. 
REPAUPO CREEK. 


Purgey Brook . . . 


Tomlins station, 
Gloucester County. 


S. Warrington 


Grist 


13 


24 


35 








RACCOON CREEK. 



IRR 106—04- 



48 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 



[no. 106. 



Water power utilized on the creeks in Coastal Plain, etc.— Continued. 

OLDMANS CREEK. 



Stream. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


Kind of mill. 


Fall. 


Horsepower 

utilized. 




Net. 


Gross. 


Oldmans Creek... 


Harrisonville, Salem 
County. 

Avis Mills, S a 1 e m 
County. 

do 




Grist 


Feet. 

16 

12 

12 
16 

20 


50 

30 

10 
18 

12 


75 


Do 

Do 


P. H. Avis & Son., 
do 


do 

Saw 

Grist 

do 


45 
15 


Do... 


Branch near Harri- 
sonville station, 
Gloucester County. 

do 


Geo. Robinson 

Vanderbilt.. 


24 


Do. 


20 









PONDS. 

The Philadelphia district, situated, as it is, to the south of the 
glaciated country and possessing a well-established drainage sj^stem, 
is free from natural ponds. The ponds that exist are insignificant 
and occupy artificial basins. The streams are thus without natural 
storage basins. 

SPRINGS. 

Between the members of the pre-Paleozoic and Paleozoic series and 
between the beds of the Wissahickon gneiss, which show considerable 
lithologic variation, springs emerge on the hillsides. Every farm- 
house is supplied with spring water. The most copious spring of the 
region is one that issues from the base of the limestone at Spring 
Mill. A stream of such volume arises from this spring, which is not 
more than a quarter of a mile from the Schuylkill River, as to furnish 
water power for mills which were formerly situated upon it. There 
is a fine spring emerging near the base of the quartzite of the north 
Chester Valley hills in the gorge of Valley Creek. The springs are for 
the most part not deep seated, but surface springs which fluctuate more 
or less with the seasons. There are therefore no thermal springs, and 
no medicinal springs, so called, have been exploited in this region. 

The springs of the Triassic area, with some exceptions, and of the 
formations of the Coastal Plain are small and of little value. 



bascom.] WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 



49 



DEEP A3STD ARTESIAN WEEES. 

PIEDMONT DISTRICT. 
ANCIENT CRYSTALLINE BELT. 

Numerous successful artesian wells have been bored in the pre- 
Paleozoic and Paleozoic rocks. Records have been obtained of the 
more important wells. In the pre-Georgian Schuylkill gneiss and a 
gabbro intrusive in it two wells have been bored, as follows: At 
Wayne a well 150 feet deep yields about 200 gallons per minute. 
At Radnor station there is an artesian well on the property of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad which furnishes water for locomotive purposes. It 
is located on the Schuylkill gneiss and gabbro intrusive. The well is 
12 inches in diameter and 1,000 feet in depth, but is worked only to a 
depth of 120 feet, yielding at this depth, by the pneumatic system of 
pumping, GO gallons per minute. 

The following wells obtain water from the Chickies quartzite: 

Wells bored in Chickies quartzite. 



Locality. 



Willow Grove 

Near Fort Washington, J. Conrad 

Waverly Heights. Edge Hill. 

Near Williams station 



Water 
supply 

per 
minute. 




(i No water. 
Artesian wells in Chester Valley limestone. 



Location. 


Depth. 


Water 

supply 

per 

minute. 


Near Floivrtown, Kunkle's farm 

Near Lancasterville, H. F. Hallman 


Feet. 
60 
98 
90 
43 


Gallons. 
a 83-Jp 
10 


Near King of Prussia. Wm. Thomas : 

Near Williams station, Thomas Phipps 


900 







Highly magnesian. 



50 



WATEK RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 



On the southeast slope of the south Chester Valley hills numerous 
wells have been bored for private individuals. These wells penetrated 
the mica-schist of the hills. They vary in depth from 60 to 80 feet 
and supply abundant water. In the shallow wells the water is soft; 
from the deeper wells it is reported to be hard. The thickness of the 
mica-schist is not very great on the slope of the hill, and possibly the 
water of the harder wells has its source in the top of the limestone 
horizon. 

In the neighborhood of Bryn Mawr there are several artesian wells 
in the Wissahickon gneiss. The location, depths, and water supply 
of those of which a record has been obtained are as follows: 



Wells in Wissahickon gneiss near Bryn Mawr. 



Location. 



Barrett Ice Plant (600 feet west of Bryn Mawr avenue, 
on County Line road) , 2 wells '. 

Bryn Mawr Hospital 

Bryn Mawr Hotel, 2 wells 

Springfield Water Company station at Bryn Mawr _ . . 



Depth. 


Diameter 
of bore. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


j 475 

I 725 






135 




r 350 
I 389 


10 


8 


560 


6 



Water 
supply 
per min- 
ute. 



Gallons. 
60 
10 

5+ 
50 
60 
83i 



The continuation of the same belt of gneiss to the northeast fur- 
nishes artesian wells in the neighborhood of Jenkintown. One-third 
of a mile north of the station in Wyncote there are eight artesian 
wells and a pumping station. These wells furnish the water supply 
to those parts of Jenkintown not supplied by the North Springfield 
Water Company. They are less than 100 feet apart. The best flow is 
at 100 feet, and the flow increases with use. Their depth and water 
supply are as follows : 



BASCOM.] 



DEEP AND ARTESIAN WELLS. 
Wells at Wyncote. 



51 





Depth. 


Water 
supply 
per min- 
ute. 


A 

B 


Feet. 
154 
205 
212 
188 
147 
235 
175 
200 


Gallons. 
97 
60 


C 


76 


D 


70 


E 


78 


F 


30 


G 


50 


H 


28 



The following wells are also in the Wissahickon mica-gneiss : 

Wells in Wissahickon mica-gneiss. 



Location. 


Depth. 


Diameter 
of bore. 


Water 
supply 
per min- 
ute. 


Jenkintown . . _ 


Feet. 

( 349 

I 324 

150 

352 

118 

r 125 

I 340 

163 

150 

240 


Inches. 

} • 


Gallons. 

f 75 


At Jenkintown station _ ... 


I 75 


Cheltenham Academy . . 


} 8 

6 


12 


Chelten Hills station . ... ... ... _ . . . . . 


3 


Oak Lane . ... ....... 


I «208 
16 


Noble station _ ........ 


Overbrook, 3 wells 


500 


F. P. Hayes, Overbrook . . . 


10 







"Hardness, 5.29. 

There are a number of artesian wells in Philadelphia which have 
penetrated the rock floor of the Paleozoic crystallines and which are 
not tabulated with the Coastal Plain wells. These are as follows: 



52 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

List of wells in Philadelphia and vicinity obtaining supplies from crystalline belt. 



Location. 


Depth. 


Size. 


Capacity 
per min- 
ute. 




Feet. 


Inches. 


Gallons. 


Pairmount Company ice works, 2401 Green street 


300 


8 


120 


Schemm's brewery, Twentieth and Poplar streets 


252 


8 


"60 


J. Bower & Company, packing house, Twenty-fourth 
and Brown streets _ _ . . . . . 


495 
2,031 


6 
8 


60 


Thirteenth and Mount Vernon streets 


&50 


Brewery, 1707 North Twelfth street 


350 


8 


100 


Seventh and Callowhill streets 


452 


8 


150 


Brewery, 1729 Mervine street 


340 


8 


75 


Prospect Brewery, corner Eleventh and Oxford streets. 


350 


8 


«75 


Crown and Willow streets - _____ 


1,000 
250 


10 

8 


100 


Ice works, 23 North Eleventh street. _ _ _ 


300 


Wall paper, 2228 North Tenth street . 


210 


8 


100 


Fifteenth and Market streets 


500 


8 


100 


Woolen mills, Ninth and Dauphin streets 


272 


6 


30 


Carpet works, Eleventh and Cambria streets 


200 


6 


50 


Dye works, 4520 Worth street, Frankford 


335 


6 


250 


Continental Hotel, corner Ninth and Chestnut streets __ 


240 


8 


40 


Hotel. Eleventh and Pine streets . _ 


576 


5 


^40 


Hotel, 108 South Broad street 


484 


8 


60 


Hotel. Broad street below Locust __ 


525 


8 


70 


Turkish bath, 1104 Walnut street 


265 


8 


110 


Machine shop, Fifty-second and Lancaster avenue 


100 


6 


200 


Morocco works, Frankford and Junction streets 


500 


6 


500 


Do 


322 
252 


6 
6 


500 


Do 


500 


Children's Home, 170 feet above tide, west of Georges 
Hill 


364 
- 252 


8 
8 


«60 


Angora Cotton Factory _ - - 


«60 


Vicker residence, Clifton Heights «. 


30 


5 


100 


N & G Taylor southeastern part of the city 


670 


12 


250 




140 








308 













« Flowing wells. 



l> "Water not good in boilers. 



c Lime and iron water. 



BASCOM.] 



DEEP AND ARTESIAN WELLS. 



53 



TRIASSIC BELT. 

The three lowest divisions of the Triassic shales cover, as has been 
indicated, the greater part of the northern third of the Philadelphia 
district. Their interbedded sandstones offer favorable conditions for 
artesian wells. The water supply of this area is, in fact, largely fur- 
nished by such wells. Below is a list of those from which reports 
were obtained: 

Artesian wells in Triassic 7-ocks. 



Locality. 


Depth. 


Depth 

to 
water. 


Geologic horizon. 


Water 

supply 

per hour. 




Feet. 


Feet. 




Gallons. 


Norristown (Sandy Hill) 


169 


74 


Sandstone bed in Norris- 
town shale. 


900 


Norristown (near Stony Creek) 
Norristown 


102 




...do 


1,003 


100 

75 


16 


do "... 


3,000 


Between Norristown and Jef- 


do 


1,500 


ferson ville, West End Land 
Co. 








Jefferson ville, F. A. Poth __._ 


921 




Two sandstone horizons in 
Norristown shale, 35 to 
40; 86 to 924. 


1,200 


Hickorytown 


70 


45 


Sandstone bed in Norris- 
town shale. 


600 


Bridgeport, Charles Meyers .. 

Sandy Hill schoolhouse, 
Whitepain Township. 


65 




do 


600 


60 


28 


do 


120 


Washington Square . . . 


35 


11 


Sandstone horizons of the 
Norristown shale. 


1,500 






Washington Square school- 
house. 


38i 


14 


do 


600 






Belfry station, Stony Creek 
R. R. 


37 


15 


.do 


30 






Ambler (3) 


275 




Abandoned; Cambro-Or- 
dovician limestone ('?). 


2,100 






Shady Grove schoolhouse , 
near Skippack pike and 
Morris, road. 


45 


19 


Probably sandstone of the 
Gwynedd series. 


900 


North Wales . 






Sandstone of the Gwynedd 
shale. 


(«) 








Lansdale 

Do .... 


159 

376 

611 

65 


1 140 
15 


fSandstone horizons of the 
\ Lansdale shale series. 

do 


I 12,000 


Do .. 


Southwest of Lansdale 


60 









« Very hard. 



54 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 



[no. 106. 



COASTAL PLAIN DISTRICT. 

The water supplies of this district, except at Woodbury and Had- 
donfield, where water is obtained from streams, are derived almost 
entirely from artesian wells. This is due in part to the unsatisfac- 
tory quality of the water of the streams and in part to the ease and 
certainty with which artesian waters can be obtained. 

GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS. 

In a broad way the Coastal Plain may be said to be made up of 
beds of marl, clays, sands, and gravel, sloping somewhat rapidly to 
the east and southeast, and resting on a floor of the crystalline rocks 
with a similar or slightly greater dip. (See PL IV.) 

The beds outcropping in the Philadelphia district may be classified 
geologically as follows, the oldest bed being at the bottom and the 
youngest at the top : 

Quaternary: Sand and gravel. 
Tertiary: Sand and gravel. 
Cretaceous: 

Manasquan or upper marls. 
Rancocas or middle marls. 
Monmouth or lower marls. 
Matawan or clay marls. 
Raritan or plastic clay. 

WATER HORIZONS. 

At the outcrops of the more porous of these beds large quantities 
of water are absorbed, and there being no outlet to the east the sands 
and gravels have become saturated by water that is under consid- 
erable pressure. When wells penetrate such beds the waters rise, 
and if the mouth of the well is lower than the outcrop where the 
water enters, the wells overflow. 

The wells in the principal water horizons in the Coastal Plain of the 
Philadelphia district are listed below. a 

The Paleozoic crystallines which underlie the Cretaceous, Tertiary, 
and Quaternary deposits are reached by wells in the Delaware Valley 
and yield excellent water. The following wells gain their water sup- 
ply from the crystalline rocks: 

Wells obtaining water from crystalline rocks. 



Locality. 


Depth. 


Remarks. 


Camden, near Front and Elm streets 

Cramer Hill Ferry, 2 wells 


Feet. 

1151 

( 116 

I 126 

188 

906 

600 

232 


Reached rock at 95 feet. 
In gneiss after 115 feet. 


Delair 


On rock floor. 

In gneiss after 168 feet. 


United States Navy- Yard, League Is- 
land, Philadelphia. 

Do 


260 to 906 in gneiss; water 

at 536 feet. 
270 to 600 in gneiss; water 


Near Grays Ferry _.. 


at 572 feet. 
95 to 232 in gneiss. 







a Data obtained mainly from the reports of the New Jersey geological survey, 1878-1902. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 




ough Ashland to south central New Jersey. 




Sec. C. Philadelphia through Sewell to southern New Jersey. 
SECTIONS SHOWING WATER HORIZONS ALONG WESTERN BORDER OF COASTAL PLAIN IN NEW JERSEY 



ASCOM.] 



DEEP AND ARTESIAN WELLS. 



55 



At the base of the Raritan are heavy, yellowish white gravel and 
cobble strata. This horizon is reached by the following wells at the 
depths indicated: 

Wells obtaining water from basal portion of Raritan formation. 



Locality. 



Camden: 

Esterbrook well 

Cooper Hospital 

Pumping station 

American Nickel Works 

Power house, Camden R. R. Co 

East of City Hall 

United States Chemical Works 

County prison . 

Reeves Oilcloth Works, Twelfth and 
Pine streets. 

Foot of Penn street 

Delair, 2 wells 

Gloucester 

Do 

Do 

Maple Shade i 

National Park, below Red Bank, on 
Schuylkill. 

Pavonia, at Pennsylvania R. R, 4 wells. 

Philadelphia: 

Little Dock street 

Moore street, on Delaware 

Riverton 

Stockton 

Washington Park, on Delaware 



Depth. 


Remarks. 


Feet. 




87 


Fair supply. 


129 


25,000 gallons per day. 


98 




105 




147 




72 




134 




157 




93^ 




76 


300 gallons per minute. 


101,118 


Fair supply. 


275 




167 




178 




375 


Abundant water. 


80 




f 152,174 


| 


| 154 


[Large supply. 


[ 124 




96 




150 




50 


10 gallons per minute. 


125 


500 gallons per minute. 


290 


Ferruginous. 



To this list should be added the wells in the southern portion of 
Philadelphia, which reach the horizon at an average depth of 130 feet 
and obtain large supplies of water. 

Interstratified with the clays of the Raritan are local beds of coarse 
sand or gravel which are water bearing. Where they occur water 
may be reached at a less depth than that of the basal beds of the 
Raritan. The following wells have obtained water from horizons in 
the Raritan above the basal beds: 



56 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

Wells obtaining water from Raritan formation ((bore the basal beds: 



Locality. 


Depth. 


Remarks. 


Camden Pen Works 


Feet. 

67 

195 

75 

149-162 

260-300 

67- 82 

50 

68 




Collingswood 

Delair 

Gloucester, 3 wells . 


Good supply. 

200 gallons per minute. 
Excellent water. 
275 gallons per minute. 
10 gallons per minute. 
125 gallons per minute. 


Maple Shade 

Pavonia, 3 wells 

Riverton 


Stockton . 



South and east of Philadelphia many wells obtain a large amount 
of fine water from bluish white gravels at the top of the Raritan. 
The following are the wells which gain their supply from this horizon : 

Wells obtaining water from top of Raritan formation. 



Locality 



Audubon, 4-£ miles southeast of Kaighns 
Point. 

Billingsport 

Camden Dye Works, Eighth and Spruce 
streets. 

United States Chemical Works 

Camden, Haddon Avenue station, 3 wells 

Seventeenth and Stevens streets 

Cinnaminson 

Clarksboro, 2 wells 

Collingswood 

Fish House, 2 wells 

Gloucester, 1 3 wells 

Magnolia 

Maple Shade 

1 mile northeast of Mickleton 

Mickleton 

Morris Station, 100 and more wells . 

2 miles south of Mount Ephraim 

1 mile south of Mount Ephraim 



Deptl 



Feet. 
96 

67 
183 

47 

75 

92 

105 

81 

46 

178 

180 

105 

105 

119 

61-102 

330 

130 

183 

238 

50-150 



134 
215 



Remarks. 



Rises to surface. 



Rises to within 15 feet of 
surface. Water horizons 
at 75 and 92 feet. 



250 gallons per minute. 
450 gallons per minute. 



Water not reported. 
15 gallons per minute. 
40 gallons per minute. 
Large supply. 

Considerable water. 

Water soft and good. 

Good water. 

From two horizons in the 
Raritan. 

Satisfactory. 



bascom.] DEEP AND ARTESIAN WELLS. DY 

Wells obtaining water from top of Karitan formation — Continued. 



Locality. 


Depth. 


Remarks. 




Feet. 




Hedding Cliurch . . _ . 


211 


Fine well. 


National Park below Red Bank, on Dela- 


78 




ware. 






West Palmyra, 4 wells 


30- 46 




4- mile west of Paulsboro 


66 




Paulsboro, a number of wells 


30- 60 




f of a mile southeast of Pedricktown 


180 
f 24 




14 miles northwest of Pedricktown 


{ 24 

[ 24 




Philadelphia: 






Seventeenth street and Washington 


67 




avenue. 






Eighth and Catherine streets 


92 




Point Breeze Gas Works 


96 




Atlantic Refinery 


56 

89 




Spreckles Sugarhouse 




Reed Street wharf 


98 
117 




14 miles east of Riverton 




Sewell _ 


420 


25 gallons per minute. 
Good water. 


Swedesboro 


172 


Do 


130 
133 




Do 


15 gallons per minute. 


Thorof are 


146 




1 mile west of Thorof are 


60 




Washington Park on Delaware, 2 wells.. 


( 82 
I 92 




Wenonah . . . ......_ . 


320-341 


40 gallons per minute. 
Abundant water, but not 


Westville : 


241 






ferruginous. 


Do 


112 
114 




Do 




Do 


105 
118 




South Westville 




Woodbury, several wells 


104-163 


Variable amounts. 


1 mile north of Woodbury 


68 


8 gallons per minute. 


1 mile south of Woodbury 


130 




North Woodbury ... 


128 




1 mile south of Woodbury 


130 




North. Woodburv - 


128 









58 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 



South and east of the Philadelphia district a few wells derive their 
water supply from some coarse sand and gravel beds within the Mata- 
wan and above the basal beds. The basal Matawan and deeper hori- 
zons furnish a more satisfactory supply. The following are the wells: 

Wells obtaining ivater from middle portion of Matawan formation. 



Locality. 



Blackwood 

Do 

Clarksboro 

f of a mile northwest of Kirkwood . _ . 

Laurel Springs, 3 wells 

Maple Shade 

% of a mile southeast of Merchantville 
11 miles southeast of Merchantville _ . 

4 miles west of Mickleton 

Newbold 

2 miles southeast of Paulsboro 

Sewell 

Stratford . 

Thorof are 

Do._ 

Wenonah Waterworks 

South Westville 

Woodbury 

2 miles south of Woodbury , 



Depth. 



Feet. 

■ 70 
68 
90 

129 
73 
83 

103 
64-97 
65 
58 
43 
73 

114 
342-351 

107 
35 
67 

196 
59 
80 

120 



Bemarks. 



Considerable. 



Good water. 

Satisfactory. 
Small amount. 

Ferruginous. 

Do. 
Satisfactory. 

Fair fupply. 
Satisfactory. 



Many of the best wells in southern New Jersey obtain their water 
su PPly from the Mount Laurel sands at the base of the Monmouth for- 
mation, but not many are within the Philadelphia district. Water 
from this horizon might be expected at Sewell and Wenonah, but 
none has been reported. 

Wells obtaining water from the base of the Monmouth. 

Feet. 
Blackwood 70 

Do 68 

Laurel Springs, 2 wells 73-83 

Do 103 

A well at Sewell derives water from the red sand that lies between 
the Monmouth and the Rancocas formations, at a depth of 72 feet. 



BASCOM.] 



DEEP AND ARTESIAN WELLS. 



59 



The wells listed below gain their water supply from the bryozoan 
earth within the Raneocas: 



Wells from Raneocas horizon. 



Laurel Springs. 
At hotel 



Feet. 

45 
73 

48 



48-5G 

48-50 



Laurel Springs 

Laurel Springs: 

7 wells 

6 wells 

No wells have been reported at the base of the Tertiary in the Phila- 
delphia district. This and other Tertiary horizons are exceedingly 
important elsewhere in southeastern New Jersey. 

Following is an alphabetical list of artesian wells embracing all 
geologic horizons in the Coastal Plain of the Philadelphia district. It 
was compiled from the well records in the reports of the geological 
survey of New Jersey, 1878-1902. 



Deep wells in Coastal Plaii 


i of the Philadelphia district 




Location. 


Depth. 


Bore. 


Capac- 
ity per 
min- 
ute. 


Height of 
water above 
(+) or below 

( -) curb. 


Geologic horizon. 


Remarks. 




Feet. 
96 

no 

170 
140 
318f 

67 
70 • 
68 
62-87 

129 
152 

112 

115| 

101^ 

75 

92 

105 
105 

105 

147 

72 
134 

47 


Ins. 
6 

3 
3 
3 
4 

3 
3 
3 

6 

6 

8 

6 
3 


Gals. 

42 

j 54 

350 

70 


Feet. 


Top of Raritan 

Basal Matawan 

.... do 




east of Kaighns Point, 
Camden. 










Do 














. do 




boro. 
Billingsport 


Surface 


In Raritan ... ... 














Top of Matawan. . . 
Basal Raritan 

do 




Esterbrook Pen Co. . . 
Cooper Hospital 


70 

16 
150 


-5 

-16 


Clay particles 
in water. 






do 




wells. 

Camden pumping 
station. 

Front and Elm streets 




do. . 








Gneiss at 95 feet . . . 




Seventh and Kaighn 
avenue. 

Do. 
















Satisfactory. 


Haddon Avenue sta- 


2 

2 

2 
6 








tion. 
Do.... 




-15 


Water at 75 to 92 
feet. 

Basal Matawan 

Basal Raritan after 
86 feet in gneiss. 

Water at 59 to 62 
feet, basal Rari- 
tan. 

Basal Raritan 

do. 




Do 




American Nickel 
Works. 

Foot of Cooke street. 




Tide level. . 




ammonia works. 
Power house, Cam- 


6 








den R. E. Co. 

East of City HaU 








United States Chemi- 






Upper Raritan 




cal Works. 
Do 











60 



WATER KESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 



[NO. 106. 



Deep wells in Coastal Plain of the Philadelphia district — Continued. 



Location. 



Camden— Continued. 
County prison 

Reeve's Oilcloth 
Works, Twelfth 
and Pine streets. 

Foot of Penn street . . 

Seventeenth and Ste- 
vens streets. 

Camden Dye Works, 
Eighth and Spruce 
streets. 

Cinnaminson 

Clarksboro . . .- 

Do 

Collingswood 

Cramer Hill Ferry 

Do 

Do 

Delair, north of 

Do... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Fish house, 2 wells 

Gloucester 

Gloucester, 7 wells 

Gloucester, 3 wells 

Gloucester, 6 wells 

Gloucester, 3 wells 

Gloucester 

Do 

Do. 

Do.. 

Hedding, 1 mile south of 
Mount Ephraim. 

Hedding Church 

Merchantville Water Co., 
Jordantown (4 wells). 

Kirkwood, f mile north- 
west. 

Laurel Springs: 

7 wells northeast of 
railroad. 

6 wells southwest of 
railroad. 

2 wells 

1 well 

Laurel Springs 

At hotel 

Laurel Springs 

Magnolia 

Mantua 

Near Merchantville 

2'. miles southwest of 
Merchantville, S. F. 
Starr. 



Depth 



Feet. 
157 

9a 

76 
81 

183 

46 

90 

180 

196 

116 

115 

126 

78 

118 

188 

101 

162 

105 

111) 

270 

67-96 

149-162 

65-102 

84-88 

167 

97 

178 

82 

215 

211 
124-141 

129 



48-56 

48-50 

73-83 
103 
45 

73 
148 
330 
195 
130 

251 



Bore. 



Ins. 



Capac- 
ity per 
min- 
ute. 



Gals. 



L6 



300 

250 



450 

70 



(Ml) 



70 
100 

46 



Height of 
water above 
( -f ) or below 

( — ) curb. 



Feet. 



Surface 
-40 



+ 1. 



Geologic horizon . 



In gneiss, basal 
Raritan. 

In Raritan, proba- 
bly basal. 



B tsal Raritan 
In Raritan 



.do 



Basal Matawan. 

Matawan 

Top of Raritan _ 

In Raritan 

do 

In gneiss 

.....do 

In Raritan 

do 

In gneiss 

do 

In Raritan 



.do 



Overflows. 

Tidal rise 
' of all, 18 

inches. 



-45. 



Basal Rarit.in... 
Basal Matawan. 

In Raritan 

Basal Matawan. 

In Raritan 

Basal Raritan . . . 
Top of Raritan _ 
Basal Raritan. _. 
Top of Raritan . 
Basal Matawan. 



.....do.. 
Raritan 



Top of Matawan. 



In Rancocas 



.do 



Top of Matawan. 
do 



In Rancocas, bryo- 
zoan earth. 

In Rancocas 

.....do 

In Raritan 

Basal Matawan . . . 

Matawan 



Raritan 



Remarks. 



Fine well. 

Very satisfac- 
tory. 



Not very sat- 
isfactory. 



BASCOM.] 



DEEP AND ARTESIAN WELLS. 



61 



Deep wells in Coastal Plain of the Philadelphia district— Continued. 



Location. 



J mils southeast of Mer- 

chantville. 
] i miles southeast of Mer- 

chantville. 

Mickleton 1 

4 unies west of Mickleton. 

I mile northeast of Mick- 
leton. 

Morris station wells, 10!) 
and more. 

Mount Ephraim 



Mount Ephraim, | mile 
distant. 

Mount Ephraim, 2 miles 
south. 

National Park below 
Red Bank, on Delaware. 

Do 

Newbold 

2 miles east-southeast of 
West Palmyra, 4 wells. 

Paulsboro ..'. 

Paulsboro, number of 
wells. 

i mile west of Paulsboro 

3i miles southwest of 
Paulsboro, E.G. Miller. 

Pavonia 

•Swells 

lwell 

Do 

Pavonia . 

Pennsylvania R . R . 



Depth. 



Feet. 
65 



Pedricktown 

f mile southeast 

li miles northwest ... 
Do 

Philadelphia: 

Foot of Tioga street, 
5 wells. 

Little Dock street 

Seventeenth and 
Washingtonavenue, 
Consumers' Ice Co. 

Eighth and Catharine 

Moore Street wharf 
on Delaware, Baugh 
Phosphate Co. 

Point Breeze gas works 

Atlantic Refinery, 
Point Breeze. 

Do 



United States Navy 
Yard, League Island 

Do : 



Do., several tests 
for. 



238 
43 
183 

50-150 

130 

80 

134 



80 

73 

30-46 

114 
30-60 



192 

152 
67-82 
174 
113 
154 
124 

180 
24 
24 
24 

■ 65 



Capac- Height of 
Bore M;yi» r water above 

, | or below 

i ) curb. 



92 
150 



90fi 



25- 



niiii- 
ute. 



/,/, 



Gals. 



6-56 

2 be- 
low. 

2 

3 

3 

3 



16 



275 



Feet. 



Tide level; 
pulsat i-s 
with tides. 



Geologic horizon. 



Remarks. 



In Matawan 

do. 



Basal Matawan Good water. 

In Matawan Soft and good. 

Top of Raritan 

From 2 horizons in 
Raritan. 

Basal Matawan Satisfactory. 

do Do. 



.do 



Do. 



In Raritan 



25 



10 79-260 



-25 



Tide level. 



Basal Raritan. 
In Matawan . . 



In Pleistocene and 
Raritan. 

In Matawan 

In Raritan 



....do.. 
Raritan 



Basal Raritan 

In Raritan 

Basal Raritan 

To crystalline roeli 

Basal Raritan 

....do 



In Raritan 

....do 

....do 



Alluvium, Raritan 
clays; gneiss not 
reached. 

Basal Raritan 

Raritan 



....do 

Basal Raritan. 



Raritan 
do.. 



Alluvium and Rar- 
itan. 

Raritan, 79-260; 
gneiss, 260-906. 

Alluvium and 
Pleistocene. 



Do. 



Satisfactory; 
tpgneiss,270; 
in gneiss,330. 



62 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 

Deep ivells in Coastal Plain of the Philadelphia district— Continued. 



Location. 


Depth. 


Bore. 


Capac- 
ity per 
min- 
ute. 


Height of 
water above 
( + ) or below 

( — ) curb. 


Geologic horizon. 


Remarks. 


Philadelphia— Continued. 
Hog: Island, Delaware 


Feet. 

456 

98 

232 

26 
46 

42 

50 

117 

420 

118 

59 

172 

130 

133 

133 

70 

35 

146 

67 

60 

120 

82 

92 
290 
341 
112 
114 
105 
241 

118 
59 
130 
80 
163 
132 
113 
142 
136 
68 
120 
128 


Ins. 


Gals. 


Feet. 


Alluvium ., 




River. 
Spreckels's sugar 








In Raritan 




house, Reed Street 
wharf. 

Near Grays Ferry, 


6 










southern Philadel- 
phia. 

Fifteenth and Cal- 










lowhill streets. 
Fidelity Building, 


8 
10 

3 

4 
3 
3 
6 
6 
6 
3 

3 

2i 










Broad street, near 
Arch. 

Do 


300 
10 
69 
25 

23 




Pleistocene sand (?) 




Riverton 






\h miles east of Riverton. 




do 




Sewall .. 




Basal Matawan 

do 




South Westville 




Redbank at 
72 feet and in 
Matawan at 
381-395 feet. 


Do 




In Matawan 

Basal Matawan.. . . 

Top of Raritan 

do. 




S wedesboro 






Good. 


Do . 


15 
15 
15 

15 


Overflows . 
..do 




Do 




Do .. 


do 


.... do 




Do 

Thorof are 


do- 


Basal Raritan 

In Matawan _ 

Basal Matawan 

In Matawan 

Basal Matawan 

Top of Raritan 

Basal Matawan 

do 


Ferruginous. 


Do 








Do 






Do. 


1 mile west of Thorofare. 








Tomlitis 


3 


40 






Washington Park on 






Delawai-e. 

Do .. 








Do. 


Do 






Tide level.. 
-40 


Basal Raritan 

Basal Matawan 

Basal Matawan 

do.... 




Wenonah 










6 
6 
3 
6 

4 
3 


15 




Do 






Do 


36 




do.. 




Do 




In Raritan 


Abundant 


South Westville . . . 


23 




Basal Matawan 

In Matawan 

Basal Matawan 

In Matawan 

Basal Matawan 

....do 


water, but 
of red color. 


Do 






1 mile south of Woodbury 
Woodbury ... 














Fair supply. 


Do 


4A 
4^ 
2i 






Few. 


Do 


2 
8 






Do 


-19 


do 


Fair supply. 


Do 


50 


do 




Do 




do 




Woodbury, 1 mile north.. 
Woodbury, 2 miles south. 
North Woodbury 


4 


8 


-10 


do 






In Matawan 

Basal Matawan 




4 


28 











bascom.] WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. 63 

PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 

The consumption of water by the cities and towns of the Philadel- 
phia district is enormous, that of Philadelphia being said to surpass 
in per capita any other citj r in the United States. In the absence of 
conditions favorable to storage it is natural that the rivers should be 
resorted to by the larger communities. In the smaller towns and vil- 
lages, however, where the demand is not so great, wells and springs 
sometimes constitute the principal supplies. 

In the area of the ciystalline rocks in Pennsjdvania, Philadelphia 
and all considerable towns in the outskirts of Philadelphia, except 
Chester, Media, Tacouy, Holmesburg, and Torresdale, are supplied by 
the Philadelphia bureau of water, the Springfield Water Company, 
and the North Springfield Water Company. The towns of Norristown 
and Ambler, in the belt of Triassic rocks, obtain their supplies from 
the Schuylkill River and from springs in the Norristown sandstone, 
respectively. In the Coastal Plain, Camden, Riverton, Palmyra, 
Newbold, Paulsboro, and other towns obtain their supplies mainly 
from artesian wells, 

PHILADELPHIA AND SUBURBS. 

PHILADELPHIA BUREAU OP WATER. 

Philadelphia, Falls of Schuylkill, Manayunk, Roxboro, Chestnut 
Hill (in part), Mount Airy, Germantown, Frankford, Bridesburg, 
AVissinoming, and the intervening areas are supplied with water by 
the bureau of water of Philadelphia. 

Water is pumped from the Schuylkill at five stations: (1) The Rox- 
boro station, above Flat Rock dam, 1 mile southwest of Roxboro and 
north of Manayunk; (2) Queen Lane station, just north of Queen 
Lane; (3) Belmont station, at the bridge of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, New York division; (4) Spring Garden; and (5) Fairmount sta- 
tion, at Fairmount dam. Water is also pumped from the Delaware 
at Frankford station, one-half mile northeast of the mouth of Wissi- 
noming Creek. From these points it is pumped to reservoirs at Rox- 
boro, Queen Lane, Fairmount Park, and Frankford, whence it has 
been distributed without filtration. A comprehensive system of plain 
sand filters is now being introduced. There are three plants, located 
at Roxboro, Bala (Belmont and City Line avenues), and Torresdale. 
Torresdale is situated on the Delaware at the mouth of Poquessing 
Creek, 2 miles northeast of Liddonfield and 1^ miles beyond the limits 
of the Philadelphia district. At Torresdale water is to be taken from 
the Delaware, and after being passed through 65 sand filters is to be 
carried in a rock tunnel, 10 feet 7 inches in diameter and 100 feet 
below the surface, to Robbins street, Tacony, whence it is to be dis- 
tributed to the Philadelphia district. The Roxboro district, compris- 
irr 106—04 5 



64 



WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 106. 



ingRoxboro, Manayunk, Chestnut Hill, Mount Airy, and Germantown 

(in part), is now supplied from the Roxboro filter plant, which is 
completed and in operation. The Queen Lane district, including the 
Falls of Schuylkill and Germantown (in part), Philadelphia, and the 
towns lying between Philadelphia and Torresdale, will be supplied 
from the Torresdale plant, which will not be in operation before 1906.; 
while Overbrook and West Philadelphia are to be supplied from the 
Relmont plant, which will be completed this year. 

The combined capacity of the filters is 320,000,000 gallons, or 
30,000,000 gallons more than the capacity of the Croton Aqueduct. 
At present the per capita consumption of water in New York is 120 
gallons daily, while in Philadelphia it is 229 gallons. 

Under the present system there is pumped from the Schuylkill 
River for the city supply a daily average of 283,429,000 gallons, while 
the Delaware River furnishes 30,160,000 gallons, making a total of 
313,589,000 gallons; thus the Schuylkill River furnishes over 90 per 
cent and the Delaware River the remainder. Under the new system 
the Schuylkill River will furnish about 20 per cent of the water con- 
sumed and the Delaware River 80 per cent. 

The following tables, compiled from the report of Mr. John W. Hill, 
chief engineer of the bureau of filtration, indicate the relative merits 
of the two streams as a source of city water supply. 

Turbidity in 1902, in parts per 1,000,000, by the silica standard. 



Delaware River . 
Schuylkill River 



Maximum. : Minimum. 



460 
1,100 



Average. 

53 

100 



Bacteria per cubic centimeter in 1902. 




Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Average. 


Delaware River 

Schuvlkill River 


21,000 

86, 000 


550 
630 


6, 405 
14,160 










Hardness, equivalent to calcium carbonate. 




Maximum. Minimum. 


Average. 


Delaware River _ . . 


94 26 


51 


Schuylkill River 


124 


41 


87 



ascom.] PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 65 

Color ly the plat ilium-cobalt standard. 





Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Average. 


Delaware River. .„ 


0.40 
0.22 


0.10 

0.04 


0.19 


Schuylkill River ______ _ - . . . 


0.09 







These data are favorable to the Delaware River in all respects 
except color. The color of the water of the Delaware is due to the 
vegetable stain brought to it by some of its southern New Jersey 
tributaries. While it will probably not be removed by sand niters, 
it is not, on the other hand, known to be inimical to health. 

SPRINGFIELD WATER COMPANIES. 

The Springfield Water Company and the North Springfield Water 
Company, under the control of the American Pipe Manufacturing 
Company, supply most of the suburban districts with water. 

All towns north of the Delaware and between Cobbs and Crum 
creeks, including Eddystone (west of Crum Creek), are supplied by 
the Springfield Water Company. The northern boundary of the area 
supplied by it extends from its reservoir, 1 mile southwest of Marple, 
eastward along the State road to Lansdowne avenue, thence north- 
west to Llanerch and to the junction of the Haverford and City Line 
roads, and east to the Schuylkill River. The towns along the main 
line of the Pennsylvania Railroad as far as Glen Loch, 25.3 miles from 
Philadelphia, are supplied by the Springfield and North Springfield 
Water companies, also the towns east of the main line — Consho- 
hocken, Chestnut Hill (in part), Oreland, Glenside, Jenkintown (in 
part), Oak Lane, and the intervening towns. Bryn Mawr is on the 
dividing line between the northern portion of this district, which is 
supplied with water by the North Springfield Water Company, and 
the southern portion, which is supplied chiefly by the Springfield 
Water Company. 

SPRINGFIELD WATER COMPANY. 

The Springfield Water Company takes its water from Crum Creek 
1^ miles northeast of Media, in the township of Springfield. The 
water is first coagulated with aluminum sulphate and passed into a 
sedimentation basin with 10,000,000 gallons capacity. From this basin 
it is passed into suction wells, and from these wells the water is pumped 
into six pressure filters, which have a capacity of 500,000 gallons each 
and which are rinsed out daily. There are reservoirs at Marple (321 
feet above tide), at Secane (243.5 feet above tide), and at Overbrook 
(201 feet above tide), with capacities of 2,000,000, 4,000,000, and 
3, 000 000 gallons, respectively. The pumping station on Crum Creek 



66 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 105. 

has never been vyorked to its full capacity. The consumption of 
water at present does not exceed 2,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. 

NORTH SPRINGFIELD WATER COMPANY. 

The North Springfield Water Company takes its water from Pick- 
ering Creek, near its mouth. Here are located a pumping station, 
a sedimentation basin, and filters. There are three filters — one slow 
sand filter, covering one-half an acre, with a capacity of 1,500,000 
gallons, and two gravity mechanical filters with a combined capacity 
of 2,500,000 gallons. The water is first pumped to a 10,000,000-gallon 
sedimentation reservoir, located across the creek from the pumping sta- 
tion. From the sedimentation basin the water gravitates through the 
filter plant to a 1 ,500,000-gallon clear-water basin and thence is pumped 
to the distributing reservoirs by means of two high-duty fly-wheel 
pumping engines. The three distributing reservoirs connected with 
this s} 7 stem are located at Diamond Rock (620 feet above tide), in the 
north Chester Valley hills, at a point about 1 mile southwest of Valley 
Forge on the same hills (586 feet above tide), and at Devon (549 feet 
above tide), with capacities, respectively, of 1,000,000, 2,000,000, and 
4,000,000 gallons. There are standpipes also at Bryn Mawr (531 feet 
above tide), at Ardmore (400 feet above tide), at Conshohocken (246 
feet above tide), at Chestnut Hill (505 feet above tide), and at Oak 
Lane (315 feet above tide). There are three artesian wells under the 
control of the North Springfield Water Company which can act as 
a reserve supply. One at Bryn Mawr, 560 feet deep, will furnish 
120,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. Two at Oak Lane, 340 feet 
deep, will furnish 300,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. The water 
has a hardness of 5.5 in the Bryn Mawr well and of 5.29 in the Oak 
Lane wells. This means 5.5 parts of carbonate of lime in 100,000. 

The consumption of water in this system does not exceed 2,000,000 
gallons daily, while the sedimentation basin has a capacity of 10,000,- 
000 gallons. There are over 300 miles of pipe under the control of 
the American Pipe Manufacturing Company, and that company is 
prepared to supply a much more densely populated district with 
abundant water. 

The following analysis of the filtered water of Pickering Creek, 
made by M. P. Ravenel, State bacteriologist, shows it to be potable 
water : 

Analysis of water of Pickering Creek. 

Per cent. 

Free ammonia 0. 08 

Nitrogen as nitrates 1 . 33 

Chlorine as chlorates ... 5. 00 

Alkalinity in terms of — 
Carbonate of lime 37. 38 

Hardness in terms of — 
Carbonate of lime 41. 60 

Number of bacteria exceedingly low. 



BASCOM.] PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 67 

The analysis of Crum Creek water taken from the spigots is equally 
favorable. 

INDEPENDENT COMPANIES. 

Tacony, Holmesburg, and Torresdale, in the Thirty-fifth and Forty- 
first wards of Philadelphia, are supplied with water by a private com- 
pany. The plant, which is owned b} r the Holmesburg Water Com- 
pany and operated by the Disston Water Company as lessee, is located 
in Holmesburg near the month of Sand} 7 Run. This little stream 
has its source in Fox Chase, is fed by springs along its course, and 
empties into the Pennypack at Holmesburg, somewhat more than 2 
miles north of the Delaware. A mechanical S} r stem of filtration is in 
use, installed by the New York Continental Jewell Filtration Com- 
pany and possessing a capacity of 2,000,000 gallons per day. 

CHESTER. 

The water supply for the city of Chester is taken from the Dela- 
ware River. It is pumped to a point 4 miles from Chester, to two 
reservoirs having a capacity of 8,000,000 gallons each. After it has 
settled it is passed through mechanical filters to a clear-water basin. 

MEDIA. 

The water department of the borough of Media supplies the city of 
Media with water. This company takes its water from Ridley Creek. 
The water is pumped through two sand filters to a reservoir and stand- 
pipe, whence it is supplied to the town. This plant furnishes 1,500,000 
gallons every twenty-four hours. 

NORRISTOWN. 

Norristown is supplied with water by the Norristown Water Corn- 
pan} 7 . This company obtains its water supply from the Schuylkill. 
The pipes are laid under the river and draw their supply from the 
channel southwest of the island opposite Norristown. In this way con- 
tamination from Stony Creek, which carries the drainage of the State 
insane asylum, is avoided. The water is first pumped into a small 
settling basin, where it is coagulated by means of aluminum sulphate. 
It then filters by gravity through a 5,000,000-gallon filter plant and 
passes into a clear-water basin, from which it is pumped to the dis- 
tributing reservoir located on the hill north of Norristown. This res- 
ervoir has a capacity of 11,000,000 gallons. 

LANSDALE. 

Lansdale obtains its water supply from two artesian wells, con- 
nected with a standpipe having a capacity of 38,000 gallons. The sys- 
tem is owned by the Lansdale Water Company. 



68 WATER RESOURCES OF PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT. [no. 108. 

AMBLER. 

The Ambler Spring Water Company, which supplies Ambler, obtains 
very pure water from a large number of springs issuing from a sand- 
stone bed of the Norristown formation. These springs furnish sev- 
eral hundred million gallons per annum. In addition, a large spring 
in a quarry in the Norristown formation is used, which yields about 
15,000 gallons per hour. 

CAMDEN. 

For many years (since about 1853) Camden took its water from the 
Delaware River, southeast of Petty Island. The pumping station 
was located at Pavonia, northeast of the mouth of Cooper Creek. 
Because of the increasing impurity of the water the supply became 
very unsatisfactory, and in 1897 and 1898 more than 100 artesian wells 
were sunk near Morris station, which yield an abundance of pure 
water. These Avells obtain their supply from two horizons within 
the Raritan. The deeper wells probably reach the base of the Rari- 
tan. All the wells are furnished with bottom strainers. A pumping 
station is established at this point, and over 20,000,000 gallons of water 
can be obtained every twenty-four hours. 

RIVERTON AND PALMYRA. 

The Riverton and Palmyra Water Company, which supplies these 
two towns, obtains its water from a dug well, 15 feet deep, near the 
Delaware River. The well is sunk in gravel and intercepts the water 
on its way to the river. This well yields 300,000 to 500,000 gallons per 
day and is estimated to have a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons per day. 

HADDONFIELD. 

The water supply of Haddonfield is obtained from a small tributary 
to the North Branch of Cooper Creek. This stream is fed by springs 
and furnishes 500,000 gallons per twenty- four hours. The water is 
pumped from a reservoir to a standpipe, whence it is distributed with- 
out filtration. 

NEWBOLD AND WESTVILLE. 

Newbold and Westville are supplied by the Westville-Newbold 
Water Company, which obtains water from three artesian wells, each 
100 feet deep. 

PAULSBORO. 

Paulsboro obtains its water supply from artesian wells 65 feet deep,. 
which yield 350 gallons per minute. No filter plant is required. The 
water is clear, colorless, and odorless, and analysis shows it to be 
remarkably pure. 



BASCOM.] 



PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 



69 



OTHER TOWNS. 
Water supply, consumption, etc., in other towns. 



Town. 


Water supply. 


Popula- Daily con- 
tion. sumption. 


Treatment 
of water. 


G loucester 

Merchantville 

Red Eank 

Wenonah - . . 


Open wells 

Springs . 

Open wells 

do 


6,564 
1,225 

4,125 

500 
3,911 


Gallons. 

1,000,000 
150, 000 
150, 000 

25,000 
225, 500 


None. 

Do. 

Also tube 
wells. 

Do. 


Woodbury 


Mantua Creek - - 


Do. 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Algonkian rocks, occurrence of 13 

Almonesson Creek, New Jersey, water 

power on 47 

Ambler, Pa., springs at and near 68 

water supply of 63, 68 

wells at 53 

Ambler Spring Water Company, 

plant of 68 

American Pipe Manufacturing Com- 
pany, water systems 

owned by 64, 66 

Analysis of Pickering Creek water 66 

Atlantic coast, topographic divisions 

of 11 

Audubon, N. J., wells at and near 56, 59 

Bala, Pa., filtration plant at 63 

Baltimore gneiss, occurrence and 

character of 13 

Barnesboro, N. J., wells at and near_ 59 

Belfry, Pa., well at 53 

Belmont, Pa., pumping station at 63, 64 

Big Timber Creek, New Jersey, char- 
acter of 42 

drainage of 43, 44 

flow of 43, 44 

water power on 44, 46, 47 

watershed of, area, forest, and 

population on 45 

Billingsport, wells at 56, 59 

Blackwood, N. J., wells at 58, 59 

Bridesburg, Pa., water supply of 63 

Bridgeport, Pa., well at 53 

Browers, Pa., rainfall at 34 

Brunswick shale, equivalents of 15 

Bryn Mawr, Pa., water supply of 65 

wells at and near 50, 66 

Buck Ridge, Pa., rocks of 13, 14 

Cambrian rocks, occurrence and char- 
acter of 13 

Cambro-Ordovician rocks, occurrence 

and character of 13 

Camden, N. J., water supply of 63, 68 

wells at 51, 55, 56, 59, 68 

Camp Hill, rocks of 13 

Carter, C. S., acknowledgments to 11 

Chelten Hills, Pa., well at 51 

Chester, Pa., water supply of 67 

Chester atlas sheet, part of, Philadel- 
phia district shown 

on 9 

Chester Creek, Pennsylvania, drain- 
age and character of 23-24 

rocks of 13 

Chester Valley hills, Pennsylvania, 

rocks of 13 

wells on 50 



Page. 
Chester Valley limestone, occurrence 

and character of 13 

wells in 49 

Chestnut Branch, New Jersey, water 

power on 47 

Chestnut Hill, Pa., water supply of _ 63, 65 
Chickies quartzite, occurrence and 

character of 13 

wells in 49 

Cinnaminson, N. J., wells at 56, 60 

Clarkesboro, N. J., wells at 56, 58, 60 

Coastal Plain, drainage of 13, 42-45 

geologic formations in 54 

location, extent, and limits of 13 

portion of Philadelphia district 

on 11 

water horizons of, diagram 

showing 54 

list of 54 

water power of 46—48 

wells in 54-62 

Codman, J. E., acknowledgments to _ 9 

cited on Pennsylvania creeks 27 

cited on Perkiomen Creek 36 

cited on Schuylkill River 32 

cited on Wissahickon Creek 40 

Cobbs Creek. See Cobbs-Darby Creek. 
Cobbs-Darby Creek, Pennsylvania, 

character of 23-24 

Cold Point Hills, Pennsylvania, rocks 

of 13 

Collingswood, N. J., wells at 56, 60 

Conshohocken, Pa., water supply 

of 65 

Cooper Creek, New Jersey, char- 
acter of 42 

drainage of 42 

flow of 42-43 

water power on 46 

watershed of, area, forest, and 

population on 45 

Cooper Creek (North Branch), drain- 
age of 42 

flow of 42 

water power on 42-43, 46 

water supply from 68 

Counties in Philadelphia district, list 

of 9 

Cramer Hill Ferry, N. J., well at 54 

Cream Valley, fault in 14 

Cretaceous rocks, occurrence of 13 

Croton, N. Y., basin of, data concern- 
ing 41 

Crum Creek, Pennsylvania, drainage 

and character of 23-24 

flow of 24-26 

71 



72 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Crum Crook, water of, character of— 67 

water of, treatment of 65 

water supply from 26, 65-66 

Crystalline rocks, area of, topogra- 
phy of 14 

occurrence and character of 13-14 

Darby Creek. See Cobbs-Darby 

Creek. 
Partem, N. II., acknowledgments to _ 10-11 
cited on rocks of Philadelphia 

district 15 

Delair, X. J., wells at 54, 55, 56, (50 

Delaware, counties of, in Philadel- 
phia district 9 

Delaware River, account of 21-31 

comparison of Schuylkill and 63 

flow of 23 

length and depth of 21 

pollution of 22 

rise and fall of 22 

. tributaries of 23, 27, 42 

account of . 23-31 

tributaries of, between Camden 

and Brighton, flow of_ 43 

valley of, elevation of 21 

wells in 54-62 

water of, bacteria in 63 

calcium carbonate in 63 

color of 64 

turbidity of 63 

water power from 22 

watershed of 21 

evaporation on 24-26 

lands of 21-22 

population of 21-22 

maps showing limits of ,_ 10 

rainfall on 24-27,28-31,35 

run-off from 24-26, 28-31 

water supply from 22, 67 

Delaware-Schuylkill divide, elevation 

of 21 

location of__ 23 

Devon, Pa., reservoir at 66 

Diamond Rock, Pa., reservoir at 66 

Dilkesboro Branch, New Jersey, wa- 
ter power on 47 

Disston Water Company, plant op- 
erated by 67 

Doylestown, Pa., rainfall at 35 

Easton, Pa., rainfall at 35 

Eddystone, Pa., water supply of 65 

Edge Hill, Pa., rocks of 13 

well at : 49 

Edwards Run, New Jersey, water 

power on 47 

Evaporation on Delaware water- 
shed 24-26 

on Neshaminy Creek watershed- 31 

on Perkiomen Creek watershed. 39 

Fairmonnt, Pa., pumping station at_ 63 

Fairmount Park, Pa., reservoir at 63 

Falls of Schuylkill, Pa., water sup- 
ply of 63 

Filtration in Philadelphia district __ 63-67 



Page. 

Flourtown, Pa., well near 49 

Fordham gneiss, occurrence and 

character of 13 

Fort Washington, Pa., well near 49 

Frankford, Pa., reservoir at 63 

water supply of 63 

Frederick, Pa., stream flow at 41 

Geological survey of New Jersey, ac- 
knowledgments to 10 

cited on Coastal Plain wells 54-62 

cited on Delaware River 22, 23 

cited on Delaware River tribu- 
taries 42-45 

cited on water powers 46-48 

Geology of Philadelphia district 11-15 

Georgian rocks, occurrence and char- 
acter of 13 

Germantown, Pa., water supply of — 63 
Germantown atlas sheet, part of 
Philadelphia district 

shown on 9 

Glenside, Pa., water supply of 65 

Gloucester, N. J., water supply of 69 

wells at 55, 56, 60 

Grays Ferry, N. J., well at ; 54 

Growing period of rain year, defini- 
tion of 15 

rainfall in 16-21 

run-off in 26 

Gulf .Creek, Pennsylvania, drainage 

and character of 35 

Gwynedd shale, occurrence and char- 
acter of 15 

Haddonfield, N. J., water supply of_ 68 
Haddonfield Branch, New Jersey, 

water power on 46 

Hamburg, Pa., rainfall at 34 

Hedding, N. J., well at 57, 60 

Hickorytown, Pa., well at 53 

Hill, John W., acknowledgments to — 9 
cited on Schuylkill and Dela- 
ware Rivers 63 

Holmesburg, Pa., water supply of — 67 
Holmesburg Water Company, plant 

of 67 

Hudson schist, occurrence and char- 
acter of 14 

Huntingdon Valley, Pennsylvania, 

fault in 14 

Jeffersonville, Pa., wells at and near_ 53 

Jenkintown, Pa., water supply of 65 

wells at and near 50, 51 

King of Prussia, Pa., well near 49 

Kirkwood, N. J., well near 58, 60 

Lancaster, Pa., well near 49 

Lansdale, Pa., rainfall at 35 

water supply of 67 

wells at and near 53 

Lansdale shale, occurrence and char- 
acter of 15 

Lansdale Water Company, plant of _ 67 

Laurel Springs, N. J., wells at 58, 59, 60 

Lea. R. S., acknowledgment to 37 

League Island, well at 54 



INDEX. 



73: 



Page. 

Lebanon, Pa., rainfall at 34 

Ledoux, J. W., acknowledgments to 9 

information furnished by 24-20 

Lehigh River, lands along 22 

population along 22 

Little Lebanon Creek, New Jersey, 

water power on 47 

Little Neshaminy Creek, Pennsyl- 
vania, drainage area 

and character of 27-2S 

flow of 28 

Little Timber Creek, New Jersey, 

water power on 47 

Locatong formation, occurrence of 15 

Lyman, B. S., cited on Pennsylvania 

rocks 11 

Magnolia. N. J., wells at 56, 60 

Manasquan formation, occurrence of 54 

Manayunk, Pa., water supply of 63 

Mantua, Pa., well at 60 

Mantua Creek, New T Jersey, charac- 
ter of 42,44 

drainage of 44 

flow of 44 

water power on 44, 46, 47 

watershed of, area, forest, and 

population on 45 

water supply from 44, 69 

Map of Philadelphia district 9 

showing limits of Delaware and 
Schuykill drainage and 
location of Philadel- 
phia district 10 

showing physiographic divisions- 11 

Maple Shade, N. J., wells at 55, 56, 58 

Marple, Pa., reservoir at 65 

Matawan formation, occurrence of 54 

wells in 58 

Media, Pa., water supply of 26, 67 

Merchantville, N. J., water supply of_ 69 

wells at and near 58, 60, 61 

Mickleton, N. J., wells at and near_ 56, 

58, 61 

Monmouth formation, occurrence of_ 54 

wells in 58 

Monongahela Branch, New Jersey, 

water power on 47 

Moorestown, Pa., rainfall at 35 

water supply of 42 

Morris, N. J., wells at 56, 68 

Mount Airy, Pa., water supply of 63 

Mount Ephraim, N. J., wells at and 

near 56, 61 

National Park, Pennsylvania, wells 

at 55, 57, 61 

Neshaminy Creek, basin of 27, 28 

basin of, data concerning 41 

rainfall in 35 

character of 27-28, 29 

flow of 28-31 

forks of, rainfall at 35 

stream flow at 41 

rainfall of 29-31 

run-off of 29-32,41 

diagram showing 28 



Page. 
Xeshaminy Creek, storage of, diagram 

showing 28 

watershed of, evaporation on ."»l 

Newbold, N. J., water supply of 6:5, 68 

wells at 58, 01 

Newell, F. II., letter of transmittal 

by 7 

New Jersey, counties of, in Philadel- 
phia district 9' 

Newton Creek, water power on 46 

Noble, Pa., well at 51 

Norristown, Pa., rocks near 14-15 

water supply of 63, 67 

wells at and near 53; 

Norristown atlas sheet, part of Phil- 
adelphia district shown 

on 9 

Norristown shale, occurrence and 

character of 14-15 

Norristown Water Company, plant of 07 
North Springfield Water Company, 

system of 66 

system of, extent of 65 

towns supplied by 63 

North Wales, Pa., well at 53 

North Woodbury, N. J., wells at 57, 62 

Oak Lane, Pa., water supply of 65 

wells at 51, 66" 

Oldmans Creek, New Jersey, charac- 
ter of 42, 45 

drainage of 45 

flow of 45 

water power on 45, 46, 48"- 

watershed of, area, forest, and 

population on 45- 

Ordovician rocks, occurrence and 

character of 14 

Oreland, Pa., water supply of 65 

Overbrook, Pa., reservoir at 65 

wells at 51 

Paleozoic rocks, occurrence of 13—14 

wells in 49, 54. 

Palmyra, N. J., water supply of 63, 68 

well near 68 

Paulsboro, N. J., water supply of _■__ 63, 6 3 

wells at and near 57, 58, 61 

Pavouia, N. J., wells at 55, 56, 6L 

Pedricktown, N. J., weils at and 

near 57, 61 

Pennypack C r e e k, Pennsylvania, 
drainage area and char- 
acter of 27-28 

flow of 28. 

Pensanken Creek, New Jersey, char- 
acter of 42 

drainage of 42 

flow of 42 

water power on 46 

watershed of, area, forest, and 

population on 45 

water supply from 42: 

Pennsylvania, counties of, in Phila- 
delphia district 9 

Perkasie shale, occurrence and char- 
acter of 15. 



7'4 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Perkiomen Creek, character of 36-37 

flow of 36-37 

rainfall on 37-39 

run-off of___ 33.37-30,41 

diagram showing 28 

storage on, diagram showing 28 

watershed of 36-37 

data concerning 41 

evaporation on 39 

rainfall in 35 

Philadelphia, rainfall at 16 

rainfall at, diagram showing 16 

water consumption of 63 

water supply of 63 

wells at 51-52,55,57,61 

Philadelphia atlas sheet, part of 
Philadelphia district 

shown on 9 

Philadelphia hureau of water, ac- 
knowledgments to 10 

cited on Neshaminy Creek 29 

cited on Pennsylvania water- 
sheds 34, 41 

cited on Perkiomen Creek 37 

cited on Schuylkill River 33 

cited on stream flow 41 

cited on Wissahickon Creek 40 

rainfall records of 34 

towns supplied hy 63 

water stations of 63 

Physiographic divisions, map show- 
ing 11 

Physiography of Philadelphia dis- 
trict 11-13 

Pickering Creek, Pennsylvania, 
drainage area and char- 
acter of 39 

flow of 39 

water of, analysis of 66 

water supply from 66 

Piedmont Plateau, drainage of 12 

elevations in 12 

geology of ■- 12-13 

location, extent, and limits of 11—12 

physiography of 12 

portion of Philadelphia district 

on 11 

streams of . 21-41 

wells in 49-53 

Ponds in Philadelphia district 48 

Population of Philadelphia district 9 

Pottstown shale, occurrence and 

character of 15 

Pottsville, Pa., rainfall at 34 

Pre-Georgian rocks, occurrence and 

character of 13 

wells in 49 

Purgey Brook, New Jersey, water 

power on 47 

Quaternary deposits, occurrence of_ 13 
Queen Lane, Pa., pumping station 

at 63 

reservoir at 63 

llaccoon Creek, New Jersey, charac- 
ter of 42, 44-45 



Page. 
Raccoon Creek, New Jersey, water 

power on 44, 46, 47 

watershed of, area, forest, and 

population on 45 

Radnor, Pa., well at 49 

Rafter, G. W., cited on rainfall 

periods 15 

Rainfall at Philadelphia 16 

at Philadelphia, diagram show- 
ing 16 

in Atlantic cities, records of 16 

in Philadelphia district 34 

minimum, mean, and maxi- 
mum years of 16 

statistics of 15-21 

on Delaware watershed 24-27, 

28-31, 35 

on Neshaminy watershed 35 

on Perkiomen watershed 35 

on Schuylkill watershed 33, 34 

Rain year, periods of 15 

periods of, relations of 15-16, 26 

Rancocas formation, occurrence of 54 

wells in 59 

Raritan formation, occurrence of 54 

wells in 55-57 

Ravenel, M. P., analysis by 66 

Reading, Pa., rainfall at 34 

Redbank, N. J., water supply of 69 

Repaupo Creek, New Jersey, water 

power on 47 

Replenishing period of rain year, 

definition of 15 

rainfall in 16,21 

run-off in 26 

Ridley Creek, Pennsylvania, drain- 
age and character of_ 23-24 

flow of — 24-26 

diagram showing 24 

water supply from 26 

Riverton, N. J., water supply of 63, 68 

wells at and near ___ 55, 56, 57, 62, 68 
Riverton and Palmyra Water Com- 
pany, plant of 68 

Roxboro, Pa., filtration at 63-64 

pumping station at 63 

reservoir at 63 

water supply of 63 

Run-off from Delaware watershed— 24-26, 

28-31 

of Neshaminy Creek 33 

of I'erkiomen Creek . 33 

of Schulykill River 33 

Sandyhill, Pa., well at 53 

Sandy Run, Pennsylvania, source 

and course of 67 

water supply from 67 

Schuylkill River, comparison of Del- 
aware and 63-64 

crossing of Piedmont Plateau by_ 21 

fall of 32 

possible storage on 32 

rainfall on 32 

run-off of 32,33 

source, course, and length of 32 



INDi.X. 



75 



Page 

Schuylkill River, tributaries of 35 

water of, bacteria iu 32, 63 

calcium carbonate iu 32, 63 

color of 64 

pollution of__ 32 

sulphuric acid in 32 

turbidity of 63 

watershed of, area of 33 

data concerning 41 

map showing limits of 10 

rainfall in 33, 34 

run-off of 33 

water supply from 32, 67 

Schuylkill-Delaware divide, eleva- 
tion of 21 

location of 23 

Secane, Pa., reservoir at 65 

Sedimentary rocks, occurrence of 14-15 

Seisholtzville, Pa., rainfall at 35 

Sewell, N. J., wells at and near — 57, 58, 61 

Shadygrove, Pa., well at 53 

Shawmut, Pa., rainfall at . 34 

South Westville, N. J., wells at__ 57, 58, 62 
Springfield Water Company, system 

of 65—66 

system of. extent of 65 

towns supplied by 63 

Spring Garden, Pa., pumping station 

at 63 

Spring Mills, Pa., spring at 48 

Springmount, Pa., rainfall at 35 

Springs in Philadelphia district 48 

Stockton, N. J., well at 55, 56 

Stockton formation, occurrence of 15 

Storage period of rain year, defini- 
tion of 15 

rainfall in 16-21 

run-off in 26 

Stratford, N. J., well at 58 

Stratigraphy of Philadelphia dis- 
trict 13-15 

Sudbury, Mass., basin of, data con- 
cerning 41 

Swedesboro, N. J., wells at 57, 62 

Swedesboro Branch, New Jersey, 

water power on ' 47 

Tacony, Pa., water supply of 67 

Tacony Creek, Pennsylvania, drain- 
age area and character 

of 27-28 

flow of___ 28 

Tertiary deposits, occurrence of 13 

wells at base of 59 

Thorofare, N. J., wells at and 

near 57, 58, 62 

Tindale Run, New Jersey, water 

power on 46 

Tohickon, Pa., basin of, data con- 
cerning 41 

Tomlins, Pa., well at 62 

Torresdale, Pa., filtration plant at__ 63-64 

water supply of 67 



Page. 

Triassic rocks, occurrence of 14-15 

wells in 53 

Valley Creek, Pennsylvania, drainage 

and character of 35 

valley of, spring in 48 

Valley Forge, Pa., reservoir near 66. 

rocks near 14-15 

Washington Park, Pa., wells at__ 55, 57, 62 

Washington Square, Pa., wells at 53 

Water, consumption of, in Philadel- 
phia and Philadelphia 

district 63" 

Water powers of Coastal Plain 46-48 

of Delaware River 22 

Water supply from Crum Creek 2(; 

from Delaware River 22, 64 

from Mantua Creek 44, 60 

from Pensauken Creek 42 

from Pickering Creek 42 

from Ridley Creek 2c> 

from Sandy Run 6f 

from Schuylkill River___ 32, 63, 64, 67 

in Philadelphia district 26, 

32, 36, 42-45, 63-60 
Water-supply systems in Philadel- 
phia district 63-60 

Wayne, Pa., well at 40 

Weather Bureau, U. S., rainfall rec- 
ords of 15-21, 34 

Wells in Coastal Plain region 54-62 

in Philadelphia district 40-62 

in Piedmont Plateau region 40-53 

water supply from 63, 67-60 

Wenonah, N. J., water supply of 60 

wells at 57,58,62 

Wenonah Branch, New Jersey, water 

power on 47 

Westchester, Pa., rainfall at 35 

West Palmyra, N. J., wells at 57, 61 

Westville, N. J., water supply of 68 

wells at 57, 62 

Westville-Newbold Water Company, 

plant of 68 

Whitemarsh Hills,. Pa., rocks of 13 

Williams, Pa., well near 40 

Willowgrove, Pa., well at 40 

Wissahickon Creek, basin of 40 

basin of, data concerning 41 

rainfall in 40* 

character of 40 

flow of 40- 

Wissahickon mica-gneiss and mica- 
schist, occurrence and 

character of 14 

wells in 50-51 

Wissinoming, Pa., water supply of 63 

Woodbury, N. J., water supply of 44-60 

wells at and near 57, 58, 62 

Woodbury Creek, New Jersey, char- 
acter of 42-4^ 

water power on 4»i 

Wyncote, Pa., wells at 50-5 . f 



o 



LIBRARY CATALOGUE SLIPS. 

[Mount each slip upon a separate card, placing the subject at the top of the 
second slip. The name of the series should not be repeated on the series 
card, but the additional numbers should be added, as received, to the first 
entry.] 



Bascom, Florence. 

. . . Water resources of the Philadelphia district, by 
Florence Bascom. Washington, Gov't print, off., 1904. 

75 p., 1 1. illus., 4 pi. (inch map) 23 cm . (U. S. Geological survey. 
Water-supply and irrigation paper no. 106. ) 

Subject series: M, General hydrographic investigations, 12; 0, Under- 
ground waters, 26. 

1. Hydrography — Philadelphia district. 



Bascom, Florence. 

. . . Water resources of the Philadelphia district, by 
Florence Bascom. Washington, Gov't print, off., 1904- 

75 p., 1 1. illus., 4 pi. (inch map) 23 cm . (U. S. Geological survey. 
Water-supply and irrigation paper no. 106.) 

Subject series: M, General hydrographic investigations, 12; 0, Under- 
ground waters, 26. 

1. Hydrography — Philadelphia district. 



U. S. Geological survey. 

Water-snpply and irrigation papers, 
no. 106. Bascom, Florence. Water resources of the 
Philadelphia district. 1904. 



U. S. Dept. of the Interior, 

see also 
U. S. Geological survey. 



M 9 



* 



Sertes K— Pumping Water. 

WS 1. Pumping water for irrigation, by H. M. Wilson. 1896. 57 pp., 9 pis. 

WS 8. Windmills for irrigation, by E. C. Murphy. 1897. 49 pp., 8 pis. 

WS 14. New tests of certain pumps and water lifts used in irrigation, by O. P. Hood. 1898. 

91 pp., 1 pi. 
WS 20. Experiments with windmills, by T. O. Perry. 1899. 97 pp., 12 pis. 
WS 29. Wells and windmills in Nebraska, by E. H. Barbour. 1899. 85 pp., 27 pis. 
WS 41. The windmill; its efficiency and economic use, Pt. I, by E. C. Murphy. 1901. 72 pp., 

14 pis. 
WS 42. The windmill, Pt. II (continuation of No. 41). 1901. 73-147 pp., 15-16 pis. 
WS 91. Natural features and economic development of Sandusky, Maumee, Muskingum, and 

Miami drainage areas in Ohio, by B. H. Plynn and M. S. Flynn. 1904. 130 pp. 

Series L— Quality op Water. 

WS 3. Sewage irrigation, by G. W. Rafter. 1897. 100 pp., 4 pis. 

WS 22. Sewage irrigation, Pt. II, by G. W. Rafter. 1899. 100 pp., 7 pis. 

WS 72. Sewage pollution near New York City and its effect on inland water resources, by M. O, 

Leighton. 1902. 75 pp., 8 pis. 
WS 76. Observations on flow of rivers in the vicinity of New York City, by H. A. Pressey 

1903. 108 pp., 13 pis. 
WS 79. Normal and polluted waters in Northeastern United States, by M. O. Leighton. 1903. 

192 pp., 15 pis. 
WS 103. Review of the laws forbidding pollution of inland waters in the United States, by E. B. 

Goodell. 1904. 120 pp. 

Series M— General Hydrographic Investigations. 

WS 56. Methods of stream measurement. 1901. 51 pp., 12 pis. 

WS 64. Accuracy of stream measurements, by E. C. Murphy. 1902. 99 pp., 4 pis. 

WS 76. Observations on flow of rivers in the vicinity of New York City, by H. A. Pressey. 
1903. 108 pp., 13 pis. 

WS 80. The relation of rainfall to run-off, by G. W. Rafter. 1903. 104 pp. 

WS 81. California hydrography, by J. B. Lippincott. 1903. 488 pp., 1 pi. 

WS 88. The Passaic flood of 1902, by G. B. Hollister and M. O. Leighton. 1903. 56 pp., 15 pis. 

WS 91. Natural features and economic development of Sandusky, Maumee, Muskingum, 
and Miami drainage areas in Ohio, by B. H. Flynn and M. S. Flynn. 1904. 130 pp. 

WS 92. The Passaic flood of 1903, by M. O. Leighton. 1904. 48 pp., 7 pis. 

WS 94. Hydrographic Manual of the United States Geological Survey, prepared by E. C. Mur- 
phy, J. C.Hoyt, and G. B. Hollister. 1904. 76 pp., 3 pis. 

WS 95. Accuracy of stream measurements (second edition), by E. C. Murphy. 1904. 169 pp. 
6 pis. 

WS 96. Destructive floods in the United States in 1903, by E. C. Murphy. 1904. 81 pp., 13 pis. 

WS 106. Water resources of the Philadelphia district, by Florence Bascom. 1904. — pp., 4 pis. 

Series N— Water Power. 

WS 24. Water resources of State of New York, Pt. I, by G. W. Rafter. 1899. 92 pp., 13 pis. 
WS 25. Water resources of State of New York, Pt. II, by G. W. Rafter. 1999: 100-200 pp., 12 

pis. 
WS 44. Profiles of rivers, by Henry Gannett. 1901. 100 pp., 11 pis. 
WS 62. Hydrography of the Southern Appalachian Mountain region, Pt. I, by H. A. Pressey. 

1902. 95 pp., 25 pis. 
WS 63. Hydrography of the Southern Appalachian Mountain region, Pt. II, by H. A. Pressey. 

1902. 96-190 pp., 26-44 pis. 
WS 69. Water powers of the State of Maine, by H. A. Pressey. 1902. 124 pp., 14 pis. 
WS 105. Water powers of Texas, by T. U. Taylor. 1904. — pp., 17 pis. 
[Continued on fourth page of cover.] 
IRR 106—3 



Series O— Underground Waters. 

WS 4. A reconnaissance in southeastern Washington, by I. C. Russell. 1897. 96 pp., 7 pis. 

WS 6. Underground waters of southwestern Kansas, by Erasmus Haworth. 1897. 65 pp., 12 pis. 

WS 7. Seepage waters of northern Utah, by Samuel Fortier. 1897. 50 pp., 3 pis. 

WS 12. Underground waters of southeastern Nebraska, by N. H. Darton. 1898. 56 pp., 21 pis. 

WS 21. Wells of northern Indiana, by Frank Leverett. 1899. 82 pp., 2 pis. 

WS 26. Wells of southern Indiana (continuation of No. 21), by Frank Leverett. 1899. 64 pp. 

WS 30. Water resources of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, by A. C. Lane. 1899. 97 pp., 7 pis. 

WS 31. Lower Michigan mineral waters, by A. C. Lane. 1899. 97 pp., 4 pis. 

WS 34. Geology and water resources of a portion of southeastern South Dakota, by J. E. 

Todd. 1900. 34 pp., 19 pis. 
WS 53. Geology and water resources of Nez Perces County, Idaho, Pt. I, by I. C. Russell. 1901. 

86 pp., 10 pis. 
WS 54. Geology and water resources of Nez Perces County, Idaho, Pt. II, by I. C. Russell. 1901. 

87-141 pp. 
WS 55. Geology and water resources of a portion of Yakima County, Wash., by G. O. Smith. 

1901. 68 pp., 7 pis. 
WS 57. Preliminary list of deep borings in the United States, Pt. I, by N. H. Darton. 1902. 60 pp. 
WS 59. Development and application of water in southern California, Pt. I, by J. B. Lippin- 

cott. 1902. 95 pp., 11 pis. 
WS 60. Development and application of water in southern California, Pt. II, by J. B. Lippin- 

cott. 1902. 96-140 pp. 
WS 61. Preliminary list of deep borings in the united States, Pt. II, by N. H. Darton. 1902. 

67 pp. 
WS 67. The motions of underground waters, by C. S. Slichter. 1902. 106 pp., 8 pis. 
B 199. Geology and water resources of the Snake River Plains of Idaho, by I. C. Russell. 1902. 

192 pp., 25 pis. 
WS 77. Water resources of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands, by Waldemar Lindgren. 1903. 62 pp., 

4 pis. 
WS 78. Preliminary report on artesian basins in southwestern Idaho and southeastern Oregon, 

by I. C. Russell. 1903. 53 pp., 2 pis. 
PP 17. Preliminary report on the geology and water resources of Nebraska west of the one 

hundred and third meridian, by N. H. Darton. 1903. 69 pp., 43 pis. 
WS 90. Geology and water resources of a part of the James River Valley, South Dakota, by 

J. E. Todd and C. M. Hall. 1904. 47 pp., 23 pis. 
WS 101. Underground waters of southern Louisiana, by G. D. Harris, with discussions of their 

uses for water supplies and for rice irrigation, by M. L. Fuller. 1904. 98 pp., 11 pis. 
WS .102. Contributions to the hydrology of eastern United States, 1903, by M. L. Fuller. 1904. 

522 pp. 
WS 104. Underground waters of Gila Valley, Arizona, by W. T. Lee. 1904. 71 pp., 5 pis. 
WS 106. Water resources of the Philadelphia district, by Florence Bascom. 1904. 81 pp., 4 pis. 

The following papers also relate to this subject: Underground waters of Arkansas Valley in 
eastern Colorado, by G. K. Gilbert, in Seventeenth Annual, Pt. II; Preliminary report on arte- 
sian waters of a portion of the Dakotas, by N. H. Darton, in Seventeenth Annual, Pt. II; Water 
resources of Illinois, by Frank Leverett, in Seventeenth Annual, Pt. II; Water resources of 
Indiana and Ohio, by Frank Leverett, in Eighteenth Annual, Pt. IV; New developments in 
well boring and irrigation in eastern South Dakota, by N. H. Darton, in Eighteenth Annual, 
Pt. IV; Rock waters of Ohio, by Edward Orton, in Nineteenth Annual, Pt. IV; Artesian well 
prospects in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, by N. H. Darton, Bulletin No. 138. 

Series P— Hydrographic Progress Reports. 

Progress reports may be found in the following publications: For 1888-89, Tenth Annual, 
Pt. II; for 1889-90, Eleventh Annual, Pt. II; for 1890-91, Twelfth Annual, Pt. II; for 1891-92, Thir- 
teenth Annual, Pt. Ill; for 1893-94, B 131; for 1895, B 140; for 1896, Eighteenth Annual, Pt. IV, 
WS 11; for 1897, Nineteenth Annual, Pt. IV, WS 15, 16; for 1898, Twentieth Annual, Pt. IV, 
WS 27,28; for 1899, Twenty-first Annual, Pt. IV, WS 35-39; for 1901, Twenty-second Annual, Pt. 
IV, WS 47-52; for 1901, WS 65, 66, 75; for 1902, WS 82-85; for 1903, WS 97-100 

Correspondence should be addressed to 
The Director, 

United States Geological Survey, 

Washington, D. C. 
irr 106 4 



r., '05,